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What is the Meaning of Ohio's Mysterious Serpent Mound?


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The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,348-foot-long prehistoric effigy mound in Ohio. Scientists are unsure what its purpose was.


Thunder Snake: A “Mystery Boom” at Ohio’s Serpent Mound

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Thunder Snake: A “Mystery Boom” at Ohio’s Serpent Mound

(Micah Hanks) The phenomenon known today as “mystery booms,” involving loud explosive noises of seemingly unexplained origin have been documented around the world for centuries. The noises are often likened to loud thunder, or more simply “booms” or explosions, with many competing theories about their origins.

Beginning toward the end of 2014, there was a notable increase in media coverage of these unusual noises (if not the occurrences of the sounds themselves), although existing scientific literature supports the clear presence of the so-called “mystery booms” much earlier. Documented by researchers the likes of David P. Hill, Scientist Emeritus with the U.S. Geological Survey, and the American physicist William R. Corliss, a variety of factors ranging from seismic phenomena, to atmospheric conditions that may allow recognizable noises (such as controlled explosions at munitions facilities) to be carried across unusual distances have been offered as possible sources.

I’ll never forget my one and only experience with a mystery boom, which occurred at a rather novel location: Ohio’s Serpent Mound in in Adams County, Ohio. First, a bit of background: the earthwork in question is located on a clifftop overlooking Brush Creek, the mound is regarded as the largest serpent effigy mound anywhere in the world, although similar, and seemingly unrelated structures exist in parts of Europe and other locales.

The likely builders of Serpent Mound (no, sorry… they weren’t Ancient Aliens) were the Fort Ancient culture, although recent radiocarbon dating carried out with samples from the site suggests the possibility that an earlier group–most likely the Adena culture–could also have built it. According to Dr. Brad Lepper of the Ohio History Connection, it remains likely that the Fort Ancient culture had been the builders, since there is cultural context upon which an association can be made between this later culture and the prevalence of snakes in their mythology, unlike the Adena (an interview with Dr. Lepper where he discusses this, and other attributes concerning Serpent Mound, can be found here).

Last October, a group of friends and I, collectively operating as the Seven Ages Research Associates, traveled together to visit Serpent Mound. We arrived under balmy conditions, and fall color had begun to extend across the branches of the trees that lined the parking lot, as we pulled up adjacent to the mound. We stepped out of the vehicle and began to unload our cameras and other gear from the back of my car, when the three of us–Jason Pentrail, an environmental scientist James Waldo, a professional geologist, and myself–were struck by the sound of a massive explosion, which seemingly came from an unseen source nearby.

“What in the hell was that,” James exclaimed. Having served with the U.S. Army under active duty and as a reservist for nearly three decades, James held a variety of positions in the field of communications and as a combat engineer, ultimately retiring at the rank of Major. In essence, during his years in combat, James had heard his fair share of explosions.

“That sounded like artillery,” Jason added, also no stranger to controlled demolitions and explosions, having a background in environmental science. Both of my companions agreed that the source of the noise was most similar to a form of artillery in the moments following the blast, which could be felt in our midsections as it pulsed through the valley, I was reminded immediately of the sound of cannon fire, which often accompanies Civil War and other historical reenactments.

As startling as the experience had been, we nearly forgot that it happened at all since the next hour was spent surveying and photographing one of the most impressive Native American monuments in the region, if not the world. The fact that a “mystery boom” had rattled us was quickly upstaged by our fascination with the mound why had it been built, and what was its significance? Had it been designed to commemorate an ancient eclipse? There are, after all, celestial components to the site that are recognized by archaeologists, which concern the alignment between the snake’s open mouth and the setting of the sun on the day of the Summer Solstice. Or, more simply, had it been a representation of a creation myth, as recent evidence may suggest?

It was only days later that I was reminded of the strange sound that accompanied our visit, when I came across ProPublica’s “Bombs in Your Backyard” page, which features a number of low, medium, and high-risk chemical and explosive sites throughout the United States. The closest of these to Serpent Mound is the Camp Sherman Artillery Range, located about an hour away in Chillicothe, Ohio. Would the sound we heard have carried this far–a distance of approximately 40 miles, as the crow flies?

It’s certainly possible. Going as far back as 1874, English researcher John Tyndall recounted that in a letter from R.G.H. Kean, who had observed the Battle of Gaines’s Mill during the American Civil War, Kean had marveled at how sounds of gunfire on a nearby battleground was inaudible, despite reports of loud noise from artillery heard more than 100 miles away:

“I distinctly saw the musket-fire of both lines… I saw batteries of artillery on both sides come into action and fire rapidly. Yet looking for near two hours, from about 5 to 7 P.M. on a midsummer afternoon, at a battle in which at least 50,000 men were actually engaged, and doubtless at least 100 pieces of field-artillery… not a single sound of the battle was audible to General Randolph and myself. [However, the] cannonade of that very battle was distinctly heard at Amherst Court-house, 100 miles west of Richmond, as I have been most credibly informed.”


The report was found by Thomas B. Gabrielson of Pennsylvania State University’s Applied Research Laboratory, and featured in his 2015 paper, “[url=http://flyquietoak.com/_source/pdf/Tab 4g PDF links/General_National/Refraction of Sound in the Atmosphere_2006.pdf]Refraction of Sound in the Atmosphere[/url],” which explored the conditions under which loud sounds can be carried across great distances under proper atmospheric conditions.

As far as the true source of the noise we heard at Serpent Mound in October 2017, it’s anyone’s guess. If I were a betting man, my money would go on the relative nearness of the Camp Sherman site, although plenty of other causes might be worthy of considering, ranging from those seismic in nature, to different varieties of atmospheric phenomenon that could cause such a thing (or, as I had suggested earlier, perhaps there really was some kind of reenactment occurring nearby that afternoon, of which my company and I had remained unaware).

However, one thing certainly remains, and regardless of the ultimate cause of the noise: to experience a “mystery boom” at an already intriguing location such as this certainly made for a memorable experience while exploring the marvels of our world.

About The Author

Micah Hanks is a writer, podcaster, and researcher whose interests cover a variety of subjects. His areas of focus include history, science, philosophy, current events, cultural studies, technology, unexplained phenomena, and ways the future of humankind may be influenced by science and innovation in the coming decades. In addition to writing, Micah hosts the Middle Theory and Gralien Report podcasts.


Serpent Mound, Ohio, continues to dazzle, inspire for the summer solstice

The exact origin is unknown, but the draw of the American Indian site is clear.

What is the Serpent Mound?

On Saturday, June 22, people will gather in a rural area 80 miles east of Cincinnati and await sunset, when the sun will align perfectly with the head of a massive ancient earthwork known as Serpent Mound.

It's an effigy mound built out of land in the shape of a twisting snake, and much of its origin is shrouded in mystery.

Exactly when it was made is even up for debate among researchers -- it was built during the Fort Ancient culture around 1100 AD, if you ask Brad Lepper, the archaeology manager for the Ohio History Connection, but other researchers will tell you it was built during the Adena culture from 800 BC to 1 AD, probably closed to 300 BC. Because it's just made out of earth -- with some repairs over the years -- precise dating is tricky.

But a few facts about the Serpent Mound are known.

It was built by American Indians, and the placing of the head of the snake is around a promontory over a creek in part created by a meteorite that hit somewhere around 300 million years ago, according to Jen Aultman, the World Heritage director of Ohio History Connection, which owns the site, and an archaeologist.

Beyond those facts, though, there's largely just speculation.

The Ohio History Connection is building speculation on archaeological and ethnographic research. They have been connecting with modern American Indian people to learn about serpent folklore and meanings. Across different tribes, serpents are largely connected to the creation of the world.

However, figuring out exactly what this serpent means is more difficult in large part because tribes were removed from Ohio during the 19th century. Currently, there are no federally recognized tribes in the state, despite their history there. That, Aultman told ABC News, "created sort of this vacuum in Ohio of meaning."

Although the exact purpose may not be known, Aultman said, whoever built it "certainly knew that this place was unique" based on the geology, even if they didn't know the meteorite was a meteorite.

With the vacuum of meaning, people have been filling in their own theories -- and not everyone's as scientific as the Ohio History Connection. Because of the meteorite and alignment with the summer solstice, conspiracy theories have popped up about extra-terrestrial involvement.

But that's one more fact Aultman can confirm: "There is absolutely no evidence aliens have been involved in Serpent Mound. It was built by American Indian people."

Lepper will be giving a talk about the question of when Serpent Mound was built at an event on Saturday managed by Arc of Appalachia that will also feature live music, a tour, a barbecue dinner and a group sunset watch.

If you plan to visit -- for the solstice or any other day -- Aultman said you should "approach it as a place that is a sacred site and approach it with reverence and open-mindedness, that we may not today know -- and we probably never will know -- exactly what it meant to the people who built it, but it was important."

After all, it took a lot of effort to build, likely being done one bucket of earth at a time, and there was certainly something significant about positioning the snake to meet the sun, which Aultman says has much less to do with extra-terrestrials and much more to do with human nature.


The eternal mysteries of Ohio’s amazing Serpent Mound

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At ground level, it is almost not visible. But from high above, the shape and design becomes unmistakable: Serpent Mound is indeed in the shape of snake. And yet, that’s just the beginning of the mystery which still surrounds this incredible marvel of human achievement.

Even the date of Serpent Mound’s construction has been shrouded in controversy and debate. As recently as 2013, radiocarbon dating revealed that the magnificent structure, which was constructed by Native Americans, dates back to 321 BCE, one year after the death of Aristotle in ancient Greece, Indian Country Today reports.

From overhead, it’s easy to see exactly why it’s called Serpent Mound (Via YouTube)

There has even been endless debate about which Native American tribe build the structure, according to Archaeology:

“In the late nineteenth century, Frederic Ward Putnam excavated two mounds near Serpent Mound, and he found artifacts and villages belonging to the Adena and the Fort Ancient cultures. Studies conducted in the 1990s dated the structure to A.D. 1120, or the Fort Ancient culture. But recently, scientists have dated charcoal pieces recovered from soil cores taken across Great Serpent Mound. The samples have yielded dates between 400 and 80 B.C., suggesting that the effigy was created by the Adena culture. The charcoal, however, was found scattered throughout the soil and may have been from old Adena fire pits that were dug up by later Fort Ancient builders.”

The serpent is a sacred creature in Native American lore (Via YouTube)

The serpentine shape also has important meaning, referring to the Plumed Serpent, which Ancient Origins describes as:

“A much-revered god who was believed to bring good tidings and civilization to humankind. His preeminent role in ancient times is evident from the fact that not only whole temples, but in fact whole cities were built as centers of worship for this entity. Most well-known of these may be the so-called pyramid of Kukulcan at Chichen-Itza in Mexico, which recently was included among the seven wonders of the world and is the most well-known of all Mayan pyramids.”

Kukulkan at the base of the west face of the northern stairway of El Castillo, Chichen Itza by Frank Kovalchek via Wikimedia Commons CC BY 2.0

Even more amazing is the fact that the Serpent Mound was constructed on the edge of a meteor crater, leading some to speculate that the location is not the least bit random or accidental:

“Between 256 to 330 million years ago, a meteor streaked through the sky — it either landed in a shallow sea or disturbed some dinosaurs, astrogeologists don’t have the exact date — and made an impact in modern-day Peebles. The site of the meteor strike lives on and is known for something equally spectacular, the Serpent Mound.”

A very rare element is found at the site of meteor crashes: Iridium. Did aliens use iridium as a source of energy? That’s what the History Channel program “Ancient Aliens” explored back in 2013, with a close look at just how expertly plotted Serpent Mound is.

Did aliens mine iridium from the mound for energy? (Via YouTube)

Serpent Mound may have a deeper significance, too. It might have been constructed to draw spirits to the area, History.com notes:

“Graves and burial mounds near the site suggest Serpent Mound’s builders may have constructed the structure for some kind of important burial or mortuary function, such as to guide spirits. But the mound itself doesn’t contain any graves or artifacts.

“Serpent Mound may have further had temporal significance—the head of the serpent aligns with the summer solstice sunset while the tail points to the winter solstice sunrise. As such, ancient peoples may have used the structure to mark time or seasons.”

Though we may never know the exact logic and purpose behind Serpent Mound, it remains one of mankind’s most incredible achievements and will no doubt continue to draw the interest of people across the world.

Here’s more on Serpent Mound from “Ancient Aliens”:


“Effigy Mounds” in North America

The Serpent is definitely not the only large animal-shaped mound in North America. There are many of them, called by archaeologists “effigy mounds” (not the usual meaning of the term effigy).

“The effigy mounds appear … in various parts of … the Mississippi Valley. They are found in many of the southern states many appear in Illinois, but Wisconsin seems to have been their peculiar field. Hundreds of them were discovered in that state … In Wisconsin they represent innumerable animal forms: the moose, buffalo, bear, fox, deer, frog, eagle, hawk, panther, elephant, and various fishes, birds and even men and women. In a few instances, a snake. In Wisconsin the effigies were usually situated on high ridges along the rivers or on the elevated shores of the lake. Very few effigy mounds have been found in Ohio – though it is by far the richest field in other forms of mounds.” (Randall 31)

There are, of course, large animal-shaped terraforms in other parts of the world, such as the Uffington and Westbury White Horses in Britain and the Nazca Lines in Peru.

So Ohio’s serpent mound is not unique. It is, however, impressive and well-done, and tends to strike people as mysterious and significant.


Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound is located in Adams County, Ohio, USA. The effigy of a serpent is found atop a precipice: a stretch of land looking very much like a peninsula plateau within a meteor impact crater[1]. The serpent effigy is thirteen hundred and seventy feet in length[2]. Serpent Mound is said to be the central hub (axis mundi) of the ancient mound builder’s culture located in the modern state of Ohio and several surrounding states.

Serpent Mound has certainly had it many admirers, pseudo-biographers, scientific investigators and well intention researchers trying to ferret out its sacred meanings. It is with full knowledge of many of these investigations and through their varied inquiries coupled with my own researches that I add my analysis and observations on the numerous exoteric and esoteric nuances incorporated into the effigy of the serpent on Serpent Mound and its surrounding topography.

Many of the features laid out in Serpent Mound and its surrounding topography are reminiscence of the ancient Egyptian, Hindus, Jewish and Christian exoteric and esoteric teachings. At first I was not willing to believe that there was a global diffusion of esoteric knowledge, which allowed for the creation of Serpent Mound however, the evidence kept piling up to the point that denial of this possibility was no longer realistic. In fact it was Serpent Mound and the American Indian culture as a whole, which honed my theory on this global diffusion of esoteric knowledge. I had to ask myself how the American Indians could have knowledge of esotericism and its highly sophisticated mathematical sciences and still remain living in what the high cultures call primitive conditions.

As I looked at this problem globally it dawn on me that the American Indian made a conscious choice culturally not to make decisions that world affect those being born seven generations hence. This kind of decision making process suppresses what modernity calls progress thus, I began to envisage that the esoteric science was made use of by the numerous indigenous cultures around the world based solely upon the temperament of the indigenous culture codifying it into their arts and educational systems (it does not have to be in the form of literature), which in all cases was initially combined secularly and religiously.

My understanding of the diffusion process is neither quite the same as academia nor those advocated by modernity as a whole in fact it is diametrically opposite to those points of views. The transcendent has its own diffusion process, which has nothing to do with depending upon humanity to dispense its message locally and/or globally. The transcendent give each soul/psyche, so desiring it, the same spiritual experience no matter where he or she may be in the world. Outwardly this may seem as if one human being is dispensing information to another culture in order for that culture to have the same religious and/or secular mores as the parent culture. This does not meet the needs of the individual’s soul/psyche. In fact such tactics such as forced religious and secular education on a conquered people is despotic and rips from the soul/psyche the better part of that person as Nietzsche[3] would say.

Granted once a religion is established children born into that mindset would learn its mores however, society teaching its children its cultural mores is taking the child out of it spiritual state of being and casting it into a cold and barren wasteland: the better part of that child is lost but how else is one to educate the child into society’s cultural mores? Consider what Christ said of those that received a spiritual vision, “suffer the little children to come unto me for such is the kingdom of heaven (Mathew 19:14).” The spiritual vision reverses the process of the world’s educational system and returns the soul/psyche to its true spiritual state of being. Now the fully mature adult has an established religious system to hone his or her spiritual experience to albeit, a superficially understood religious system: once again cast into a cold and barren wasteland nonetheless, the newly initiated initiate has Orenda[4] to guide him or her out of the cold and barren wasteland into a fully spiritual understanding of his or her religion’s mores.

I highly recommend those reading this article to first read my contribution to World Mysteries: SACRED GEOMETRY AND THE ART OF SCRIPTURAL WRITING[5]. Many of the esoteric ideas in that article are relevant to the esoteric analysis of Serpent Mound.

Esotericism has everything to do with SERENT MOUND and the deciphering of its internal construct: how and why was it constructed. It is crucial that the reader realize that the American Indian was just as intelligent as any other human being on the face of the earth. The American Indians’ spiritual mores are as intrinsically esoteric as any other culture on earth. It is important to mention at this very early stage that this entire paper was written from an esoteric perspective nevertheless, a great deal of scientific evidence will be presented with appropriate reference material to augment this thesis however, this gives the reader but a slight glimpse into the spiritual understanding of what is transpiring at SERPENT MOUND.

The average man and women looking at SERPENT MOUND and the surrounding region see it all with the jaundice eye of the mundane: meaning that the individual views this and other sacred sites in the world at large with his or her own educational reach and intellectual prowess however, when it comes to the higher civilizations of antiquity then the modern man knows for the most part those people were far more intelligent then he or she is whereas, the American Indians and other aboriginal cultures around the world appear to be so primitive that they seem to be just out of the antediluvian times.

Esotericism is not in the mainstream educational system and for the most part it is a spiritual system of thought unknown to the mundane world at large however, it is the most sophisticated scientific educational system the world has or will ever know bar none. There is one prerequisite to understanding esotericism and that is the individual has to be spiritually minded to understand its transcendental concepts. Outwardly the Esoteric Science is imprinted upon the exoteric (mundane) and cannot be readily seen with the naked eye and/or envisaged through the normal means of reason and logic nonetheless, the uninitiated can be taught to decipher ‘some’ of its esoteric scientific patterns codified to the mundane. It takes a great deal of time, expense and analytical thought to get at this knowledge nonetheless, it takes a deep agonizing desire within the heart of the initiate to invoke the aid of the spiritual powers that be (Orenda) to guide him or her through the maze.

Again it would take a spiritual minded individual to cull out the better part of this system of thought and then it would take a lifetime of inner contemplative and meditational researches to fully get a handle on this spiritual science. The educational systems of the world believe that all systems of thought can be learned within a designated period of time. This is not so with the Esoteric Science. To learn the deep esoteric principles the initiate goes through a lifetime of testing and temptations. Does the initiate really want to know about him or herself or is this esoteric system of thought being studied for fame, power and fortune? It is the soul’s/psyche’s inner internal spiritual powers that be that are continuously without ceasing determining the viability of the initiate progress in learning the numerous nuances in this Esoteric Science: in other words, the initiate is spiritually evaluating him or herself and spiritually one cannot lie to oneself.

In fact the esoteric system of thought is so difficult to completely comprehend that it takes envisaging the infinite realm of God within a grain of sand: within a letter (BETH – first letter of Genesis) or within a sound (OM – Hindu monastery chant). The American Indians that built SERPENT MOUND knew this spiritual system and rule of thought in its entirety and they accomplished placing that understanding in their sacred Star Mounds throughout the North American continent’s northern hemisphere.

Esotericism for the most part is not for the average citizen however, it is there for them when that day comes that they have a spiritual vision. Esotericism explains to the initiate the spiritual vision (Orenda) that comes to him or her from the transcendent and that is all it teaches. No matter how sophisticated the esoteric science is presented esotericism teaches the soul/psyche that the entire outer materialistic manifestation is analogous to his or her soul/psyche.

After 39-years of researching the esoteric science from out of the Judeao Christian scriptures and after the publication of three books on the subject of esotericism I feel eminently qualified to decode the esotericism codified to the SERPENT MOUND complex.

1. SERPENT MOUND’S SURROUNDING TOPOGRAPHY

The East Folk and West Folk tributary streams[6] flowing into Brush Creek, which flows along side of Serpent Mound’s Peninsula Plateau, is some of the topography that needs to be pointed out. Compare a map of Egypt where the Nile River flows into two main tributaries, which then flow into the Mediterranean Sea. No, this is not exactly the same however, there are other examples of topography that needs to be compared and considered. The Sketch Map of Serpent Mound Park[7] gives a general depiction of the area under discussion.

It is not only the multiple of similarities but also their dissimilarities that have caught my attention. The second topographic nuance concerns the peninsula of Sinai compared to the peninsula that Serpent Mound is positioned upon: they are extraordinarily similar. Consider the LiDAR[8] video and note that both the Sinai and the Serpent Mound peninsulas are both flanked by two bodies of waters. Both Brush and East creeks alongside of Serpent Mound peninsula have all the appearance of being manmade. The image of Brush Creek from the LiDAR video clearly looks too uniformed to have been carved out by nature and East Creek gives all the appearance of being carved out in a straight line. The LiDAR video takes away all organic materials from view, which would normally hide these topographical anomalies.

The most extraordinary feature that shows up on the LiDAR video has traditionally nothing to do with Serpent Mound. In the very beginning of this film the topography of the area to the north and south of Serpent Mound is brought into view. This includes seeing the folk in Brush Creek representing East Folk and West Folk tributary streams and to the south of Serpent Mound most of the peninsula plateau east of Brush Creek is shown and it looks very much like a sleeping (dreamer[9]) or dead bear (this is consistent with the Hunting of Great Bear mythology). Serpent Mound’s effigy is located at the bear’s mouth.

It would seem that I was the first to make this observation concerning Serpent Mound’s peninsula plateau being in the shape of a sleeping (dreamer) or dead bear, which forced the investigation into any American Indian Bear Clans that may have been in the region around the twelfth century AD: the time of Serpent Mound’s construction. This last was ascertained by carbon dating. This led into the investigation of the American Indian’s Great Bear Spirit Mythology: most notably ‘Hunting the Great Bear[10]’. I immediately sent out emails and searched the internet and other resources but little data is known outside of pure speculation[11] being that the American Indians as a whole was not a detailed record keeping culture: for the most part everything was handed down by word of mouth. I traced the Bear Clan in the region to the Mohawk Indians, one of the five original nations comprising the Iroquois Confederacy[12]. The mythology concerning the ‘Hunting of the Great Bear’ originates in the Iroquois Confederacy. It would seem that most Indian nations throughout the continental United States have a Bear Clan and the same ‘Hunting of the Great Bear’ stories with slight variations. This last does not take away from the fact that the Iroquois[13] Confederacy moved into the Ohio and surrounding states region in the twelfth century AD.

There are others that want to give Serpent Mound a far more ancient and mysterious history preceding the birth of Christ however, they are depending upon materials that were initially place in Serpent Mound (as filler) by its builders, which could have been used materials from who knows where. Another carbon dating report[14] is said to be out later this year. Apparently this is much hope on the BC date. My chief objection to such an antiquity lies in the fact that Serpent Mound is in too good of a condition to be of that antiquity. The world has seen wind worn erosion on the temple complex made out of pure granite next to the Sphinx in Egypt can we not expect to see at least some erosional features on Serpent Mound over a period of two thousand years or more. Consider the freezing winter’s snows and then the thawing coupled with thunder and lightning storms incessantly pounding upon Serpent Mound for over two thousand years, would this not eventually do great damage to the Serpent Mound effigy? Now look at the picture of the LiDAR video again. Are not those the same geological features that Professor Robert M. Schoch, PH.D.[15], of Boston University, declared was consistent with “precipitation-induced weathering” of the enclosure of the Sphinx? I am not a geologist but this is what Professor Schoch (geologist) and John Anthony West[16], the noted amateur archeologist, has been teaching the world for decades. The LiDAR picture above shows that the fissures clearly seen on both sides of the peninsula’s plateau are running down from both sides of Serpent Mound. Serpent Mound is centrally located at the apex of the peninsula’s plateau. The Ohio region climatically has consistent snows and rains year in and year out. That is the point. Why is Serpent Mound still there if it is over two thousand years old?

I can understand that Serpent Mound was probably well maintained (trees[17] and other debris removed and soil, clay and stone repairs made when necessary) throughout its long history from the twelfth century. The indigenous tribe(s) that built it may well have remained in the area right up to the time of the White Man’s encroachment on their territories driving them out of the region in the nineteenth century.

Mea Culpa : it may well be that I am wrong about the AD/BC dating of SERPENT MOUND and the creation of its effigy and the sculptural formation of the sleeping or dead bear on the outcropping of the peninsula plateau however, if the mounds of Ohio and those found in surrounding states were created by the Adena and Hopewell Indians in the BC era then those Native Americans Tribes that still remain in the area are their descendents and carry on the cultural mores of their ancestors (compare the American Indian mythologies of the entire continental United States and Canada: they are virtually identical within tight ‘peripheral’ variations albeit, on a superficial level but that is exactly how modern Christians are carrying on the religious mores of the Founding Father of Christianity. Another point about esotericism is that it may have in the pass and will again in the future fade out in the psyche of the cultural mindset however, it always reappear to future initiates. This esoteric science cannot stay hidden for thousands of years that would be totally alien to the purpose of life. Esotericism is the soul’s/psyche’s main rationale for existence and life on earth. To have it cease its appearance periodically in the cultural mores of a culture takes the raison d’être: reason for existence out of the equation for the individual. Here I am speaking about the total annihilation of the soul at death and eternal life.

2. THE MYSTERIES OF ESOTERICISM

The White Man’s cultural mores tends to have anthropologists believing that the American Indian had no reason to give them false information. It is my firm belief that the indigenous population of the North and South American continents was trying to education the savage: the White Man by simply telling him the simple stories they taught their young children [the American Indians’ version of Sunday School Bible Classes]: these were not lies but the American Indian religious mores. Consider the analogy of a new born baby’s needs as it mature to adulthood: compare the savage needs of the new born baby’s mentality to the temperament of the White Man landing on the shores of the North and South American continents: the baby is somewhat controllable whereas, the White Man had no civilizing mores, to curtail his appetites, whatsoever. Remember these European invaders were initially ruffian sailors: pirates of the sea at best out to grab, steal and murder anything they could get their hand on. There is analogously no difference between the invasions of the European White Man and that of the Hun (barbarians) that invaded the Roman Empire. The White Man was a savage in the American Indian mindset because he raped Mother Nature and chased them from their ancestral lands. A perfect example of the early times of the White Man’s incursions into the heart of the American Indians’ homeland was the killing of tens of thousands of Buffalo taking their hides and leaving behind their rotting corpses on the landscape of the prairies. The shame of it forced their descendents in later generations to come up with the egregious excuse that the early settlers was trying to destroy the American Indian religion when in fact it was all about profit and greed: this example is not to discount the atrocities, massacres and mayhem towards the indigenous populations but also consider the infinite amount of examples of inconsiderate waste, deliberate spillage and premeditated damage to the lands and forests as far as the eye could see, the unconscionable pollution of the air and the senseless poisoning of the continental water tables: all collectively Mother Nature. Destroying the Buffalo may have taken away the American Indian’s main food staple and clothing of the times but it did not take away their belief in the Great Spirit, which is not housed in an icon rather it is housed in the heart: something the White Man has yet to learn.

Would any keepers of their religion’s internal esoteric secrets freely give that knowledge of esotericism to another, such as outlined above? The Mysteries Schools of antiquity around the world: bar none traditionally kept internally the esoteric secrets from those within their own populations that did not have the inquisitive nature to know the truth about themselves. If the shaman of his own people would not give this ‘interpretive key’ freely to a member of his own family why would he give it to an outsider such as an anthropologist’s? Of cause the American Indians as a whole would freely allow the anthropologist to record the variations of all their mythologies because those records hold the core esoteric principles that generate the true knowledge of the esoteric science in their culture: the true knowledge of the soul/psyche. For example, go to any Christian and asked to be taught Christianity and he or she will go out of his or her way to teach you about the Old and New Testaments and probably give you a free bible however, the average Christian (as with the average American Indian relating to his cultural myths) has no idea that embedded in those biblical stories is the full unvarnished record of esotericism: the true Word of God.

The Esoteric Science is not indigenous to anyone culture on the face of the earth. I have known for some time that the American Indians had an esotericism in their spiritual belief system that is equal to any other culture on the face of the earth: it is second to no other religious teaching. Knowing this and being able to say something of substance about it is another matter. That is until I recently became aware of the scientific studies that were being conducted at Serpent Mound. My previous studies into the American Indian culture were tentative at best. Yes, I noted at the time that they had to have known of higher mathematics and that conclusion was based solely upon seeing the swastika in much of their art works. The swastika comes only from a 3 x 3 square called the Kamea of Saturn (in China it is called the Lo Shu)[18], which embodies the first nine numbers. These nine base numbers exudes the four basic mathematical sciences: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, which in themselves would lead into the higher mathematical disciplines. In order to know of the Kamea of Saturn (magic square[19]), whatever name the American Indians may have given it, points to knowledge of esotericism as sophisticated as any of the highly sophisticated cultures in antiquity.

The gorget created and used by the Adena and Hopewell Indians is one of the most sophisticated examples of the Kamea of Saturn in esoteric art I’ve personally have come across. This little gorget is crammed pact with esoteric information if one knows how to read it. It was most likely worn around the neck to signal other initiates like him or herself, in other groups and/or tribes, that he or she was one of them.

This particular gorget FIRST conveys that it is a three by three square: compare it to the Kamea of Saturn.

SECOND the two human figures, back to back (symbolize complete opposites): the initiate symbolically explain that “thought I live amongst the uninitiated performing all the outward ceremonies, speaking the same language and wearing the same cloths, I’m an initiate”,

THIRD: the positions of the left leg of the individual on the left and the right leg of the individual on the right signifies the left leg is forming the Female (moon) Swastika and the right leg is forming the Male (sun) Swastika.

FORTH: the horizontal bar of the equal distance cross has ‘cross’ symbols along its entire length, which is the same symbol seen in the dance rattle each figure is holding demonstrating that the esoteric arts are fully integrated into the mainstream culture. This horizontal bar points to the second multiplication table (BETH #2 = container) and FIFTH: the central figure, in the entire design of the gorget, is fashioned in the form of a female swastika indicating that this is an initiate’s gorget. No individual uninitiated would be allowed to wear such jewelry. I proffer that from this single piece of jewelry it is possible that the entire vast esoteric system of knowledge can be reestablished.

The Cox Gorget is a beautiful female swastika formed by woodpecker figures. It is obviously in the form of a Kamea of Saturn. The inner square shows a continuous never-ending twirling motion similar to a galaxy in motion (or like a pinwheel = twirling swastika). The central part of the gorget shows an eight pointed star figure. The Kamea of Saturn is often shown in an octagon (eight sided) shape. The circle with the cross in the center points to a Kamea of Saturn within a circle (repetitious of the eternal twirling square nuance) however, this cross in a circle simultaneously represents a sun symbol: meaning that this is the new sun of the Great Spirit. The new Vesica Piscis is fully integrated into the mundane society and the matriarchal society is still dominant (female swastika). The eternal twirling square motion in the design of this gorget is quite beautiful esoterically in its esoteric meanings.

FIRST: consider the central sun (newly formed Vesica Piscis) as the impetus for forming the mindset of the initiate,

SECOND: the eight-star figure points to the Kamea of Saturn as new dominant educational paradigm for the initiate,

THIRD: the never-ending twirling square points to transcendental knowledge brought down to human understanding (hence square) however, the never-ending twirling square points to a never-ending process of understanding and reinventing new ways of expressing this esotericism and

FOURTH: the incessantly tapping of the woodpecker on the barks of trees in search of food is analogous to the initiate eternal and incessant quest to find new ways of understanding this esotericism: as food for thought.

Only another initiate of the esoteric science could see and understand these things from esoteric art. Consider the critique of the academic anthropologists on these works of art over the past few centuries? Enough said.

The higher mathematics used by the mound building culture demonstrated a highly sophisticated knowledge of esotericism and astronomy. Astrology is not a manmade system. It is purely esoteric in its construct and all of its nuances no matter what modernity thinks about it or has turned it into. The average person thinks that Astrology was invented by shepherds idling away time at night tending to their flocks in grazing fields. Astrology can only have been envisaged out of the Kamea of Saturn or its parent the Universal Mathematical Matrix[20]. Most important to know about this matrix is that it can be independently envisaged from out of the MONAD by pure meditational means. I know because I personally did this while researching Dante Alighieri’s (1265-1321) mathematical system[21]. This Universal Mathematical Matrix[22] is then used by ancient cultures to write their sacred literature and build their megalithic monuments around the world. Absolutely nothing that mankind knows: language and/or mathematics were ever conceived by man without first having culled it from this mathematical matrix.

ASTROLOGY is a very sophisticated system of symbolism and it was not culled out of this matrix as a mere whim for fortune telling. It is a symbolic tool as a memory aid: a mnemonic tool. It is a system of thought that was given to the mystic through this matrix: i.e. the transcendent. Astrology is neither an easy system of thought to grasp nor an easy system to put together from out of this matrix. An extremely great deal of meditation has to be put forth to grasp what the matrix is saying. This matrix is equivalent to God (Great Spirit) speaking to the mystic. Pythagoras called the MONAD God. This matrix is an interpretation of the MONAD: it is the logos (Word of God). Hypothetically, this matrix may well be symbolically the body (square) of Spider-Weaver[23].

Looking at the matrix in can be seen that each one of the columns 1-8 is pair off with another that is diametrically opposite to it: 1 & 8, 2 & 7, 3 & 6 and 4 & 5. These are the Sun Signs of Astrology: Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Moon and the Sun. Each of the first four columns and the second set of four columns in reverse emit three three-digit numbers representing one of the signs of the Zodiac. Each of the first four columns represents one of the mystic elements: Fire, Earth, Air and Water. And this same goes for the reverse four columns.

This is the matrix that created the Chinese oracle the I Ching and the Game of Chess. Does anyone really think that any mystic grace by God would have a difficult time figuring this out plus having the ability to use these patterns to paint the canvass of the star-studded universe with appropriate images to represent these teachings? The entire Judeao Christian Scriptures are based solely upon this Universal Mathematical Matrix. Does anyone think that the American Indian did not have the same mental acuity as any other major religion on earth?

I have previously demonstrated elsewhere (see footnote #5) that this Universal Mathematical Matrix[24] is the original source of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life and it perfectly fits within a single Vesica Piscis. The first chapter of Genesis demonstrates graphically that the Kundalini Serpent goes up this Kabbalistic Tree of Life.

I proffer that the serpent effigy on Serpent Mound surrounding and ascending the Pole Star (Kabbalistic Tree of Life) is patterned within this Universal Mathematical Matrix. Take the diagonal cells from the top left of the matrix diagonally down to the bottom right of the matrix: note at the center of the matrix the two sevens and two twos. The six twos spanning the diagonal length of the matrix represent the body of the serpent in the pattern of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life and the two sevens in that alignment are the seven swirls in the central part of the serpent’s effigy. It is the synthesis of the Oval Shape Egg (receiving of the vision) and the Serpent that causes the Kundalini energy to rise within the serpent. Note that the #1 (MONAD[25]) at the top left of the matrix between the two twos (serpent’s mouth) would be the Oval Shape Egg. The seven large dots along the body of the serpent represent Dr. William F. Romain’s and other’s measurements for the Lunar, Solar and Equinox Alignments. The basic cell-pattern seen here for the serpent’s effigy is the same cells in this matrix that the Judeao Christian scripture uses to pattern the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. The layout of the cells representing the serpent effigy is uncanny. The head and the tail of the serpent are blocked off in order to give an idea of where the serpent’s coiled tail should be. The #1 at the bottom right of the matrix represents the dormant lingam at the bottom of the spine, which the serpent is said to be coiled around 3½-times. If the Universal Mathematical Matrix is the original source of the Serpent Mound effigy, and I believe it is, then the American Indians have a unique perspective on the Kundalini Energy. Clearly the matrix is inferring that the serpent is not the Kundalini energy but rather is the spiritual vision (Kundalini Energy) received which in turn activates the sleeping serpent and reenergizes it making the serpent once again active and creative in the world. Actually, this is the same concept outlined in the Judeao Christian scriptures however, it is not so explicitly stated. In the Judeao Christian scriptures each of the human characters is a representative of Yahweh or Elohym: two serpents wrapped around the tree of the Garden of Eden. The sleeping serpent represents Yahweh who is eternally resting (passive): seeking utopia whereas, the active serpent is Elohym eternally creating (proactive).

Serpent Mound being the axis mundi of the Ohio Mound Builder’s culture indicates these mound builders move into the area culturally fully developed[26] as a highly sophisticated civilization and this conclusion is based upon what others have discovered: that all the other mound builder’s sites in Ohio and neighboring states are centered on Serpent Mound. In fact Ross Hamilton’s work shows the mound building sites surrounding Serpent Mound are aligned graphically to the Zodiac collectively in a gigantic oval shape[27], which follows the initial paradigm set when Serpent Mound’s Peninsula Plateau was sculptured to form the initial Vesica Piscis. Being that Serpent Mound is the axis mundi then all else follows its base esoteric pattern like a pebble tossed in water. The second Vesica Piscis is the Oval Shape Egg and the third is the gigantic Zodiac. It must be realized that this is how esotericism is published by the mystic to demonstrate that the vision received and translated is all that exist upon the face of the earth and the universe at large. This is precisely how the Judeao Christian scripture conveys the Genesis Creation Account through this kind of redundant patterning: repetition is the hallmark of science. I fully understand that the uninitiated will not understand this but it is what it is.

3. SERPENT MOUND’S METEOR CRATER AND THE VESICA PISCIS

Serpent Mound interested me because of the many esoteric nuances that seem to permeate the site. These were the same esoteric nuances that I had previously envisaged in the Genesis Creation Account (see footnote #5). One of the most important was that Serpent Mound was located inside a meteor crater. That nuance was absolutely stunning. Here was a crater created from out of the universe of stars and its stellar debris and right on the periphery inside the crater[28] is SERPENT MOUND: incredible. This is precisely what the first letter of GENESIS: PEI/BETH is saying. It is precisely what the MONAD is conveying. There is a whole world of esotericism that lies before humanity and they do not see it: wake up world it is there waiting for you.

BETH is the first written letter of the bible and PEI is unwritten and is found in and surrounding the letter BETH in the white area of the page: this is a perfect analogy of what the MONAD[29] is conveying. Think about that for a minute. PEI being in the white area of the page takes in the whole page not just the area that BETH is written in. PEI in the Hebrew coder represents symbolically the ‘Mouth of God’: the transcendent. This is a particularly important nuance to grasp. BETH is on the periphery of the page as SERPENT MOUND’S PENINSULA PLATEAU is on the periphery inside the meteor crater. PEI therefore, is symbolically the entire SERPENT MOUND’S CRATER and BETH is symbolic of the Summer Solstice Sunset. Both letters PEI and BETH in unity formed the serpent effigy and the peninsula plateau that it is situated on (Vesica Piscis): meaning that the sculptured peninsula plateau in the form of a a gigantic sleeping Bear (serpent effigy located in the area of its mouth) would analogously represent the first word of Genesis BE-RESH-ITH formulated from the Hebrew letters BETH and RESH in the Judeao Christian bible.

There are actually two serpents on SERPENT MOUND in fact, I dare say the serpent effigy is analogous to the second coming of CHRIST as portrait in the first word of Genesis: BERESHITH. For the most part everything symbolically taught in the esoteric structuring of the first word of Genesis: BERESHTH is esoterically laid out on Serpent Mound.

Consider the Great Bear lying on Serpent Mound Peninsula Plateau. Symbolically, the bear represents any member of the Indian community. This is an individual that does not know how to pray (live the spiritual life: Life is Prayer) but he or she goes about life with a deep agonizing desire to know the truth about life. This is analogous to BETH [be…ith] opening up (humbling) him or herself to receive Orenda: in other words the sun (ego-consciousness) is about to set over the waters. BETH is no longer a word (containing ego-consciousness) rather, it is merely a letter. It is an empty container for its sun has set. The body of the bear is still there. It is just that the head (analogously John the Baptist head) or the tyrannical factors of life are psychically gone. A new head is needed and in the Judeao Christian scripture in reference to the first letter and first word of Genesis that letter is RESH, which is interpreted as “first and/or head”. This letter RESH is then inserted into Be…ith to form the word ‘Be-resh-ith’. In reference to Serpent Mound the body of the BEAR is ‘be’, the serpent effigy represents ‘resh’ and the dying sun represents ‘ith (setting over the waters = Brush Creek)’. This is why the moon coming in from the east is of a higher consciousness (Resh rather than Beth), which receives its mandate from the Great Spirit. The two circles interlocking forming the Vesica Piscis can be seen as two scythes: one cutting or forcing the sunset and the second is when the spiritual powers went back into the transcendent: what remains is the Vesica Piscis: this is similar to Christ saying from the cross, “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me (Matthew 27:46)?” The Oval Shaped Egg is not the serpent rather, it symbolically represents Orenda as it merges with the serpent. The Oval Shaped Egg (Orenda) and the serpent effigy are two separate symbols combining to symbolize the melding process. You can think of it in this way. The old serpent (Yahweh – sun – ego-consciousness) is gone. The new serpent is the humbleness of the old serpent taking on the spirituality: Orenda (Oval Shape Egg – Vesica Piscis) from the transcendent, which the galactic core symbolizes.

Interestingly, it is reported that ‘Draco was Tai Kung, the Palace of the Heavenly Emperor, bounded by the stars of Draco, fifteen in number, which stretch themselves in an oval shape round the pole star[30]’. The Pole Star is Ursa Minor and the fifteen stars is the numerical count of the top tier-row of the Kamea of Saturn: 4 + 9 + 2 = 15. The 4 = Cancer (Ursa Minor and Ursa Major), the 9 = Sagittarius (Draco) and the 2: i.e. 11 = Aquarius (Cygnus: Swan or Northern Star). I say top tier-row of the Kamea of Saturn because it represents the last three numbers in the multiplication table of the number seven: 7 x 7 = 49 (4), 7 x 8 = 56 (2) and 7 x 9 = 63 (9): 49 + 56 + 63 = 168 or the hours in a seven day week[31]. Serpent Mound’s effigy has seven swirls in its body representing the seven chakras. In the first chapter of Genesis this same motif of the 168 hours of a week is used mathematically to represent its example of the Kundalini Serpent. The entire story of Serpent Mound is being told through ancient star lore. I find it incomprehensible that in ancient China the stargazers saw the same mysteries in the constellation of Draco that the Adena and/or Hopewell Indians envisaged in North America. If everything else was summarily dismissed as an over active imagination how can Draco fifteen stars constellating into an Oval Shape around the Pole Star be discounted for those who built Serpent Mound? An equal argument can be advanced for the 168[32]-hours in a week forming the motif representing the Kundalini Serpent on Serpent Mound as it is clearly outlined mathematically in the first chapter of Genesis.

I want to belabor this issue about the number 168 a bit more for the reason that, it represents the spiritual vision from the transcendent. I am not saying that the Jews and/or the Christians had anything whatsoever to do with building Serpent Mound however, I believe that numerous mystical traditions around the world can independently develop their own unique mystical systems of thought envisaging the same numinous ideas used as symbols for their concepts however, not necessarily in the same manner though, they enigmatically mean the same thing esoterically. The case in point is the number 168 (see footnote #5). I have demonstrated elsewhere that the word ‘Elohym (God)’ in the Genesis creation account is Gemetria is structured with the formula for pi (3.1415). In addition I have shown that the circle of 32-Elohyms in the first chapter of Genesis has an aggregate of 528 and the word LIGHT takes up half the Elohyms 3-18, which has the aggregate of 168: the remainder being 360 (degrees in a circle). The 16-Elohyms in positions 3-18 are in the first four days of creation and symbolically represent the word LIGHT for the reason that, those days have as a group 207-words, which is the Gemetria value of the word LIGHT. The diameter of a circle of 528 is 168, which make Elohym (pi) the LIGHT. I also demonstrated that the word ‘Elohym’ represents the entire Trinity, which can take on the roles of any of the three persons of the Trinity: Yahweh (Yud – Ego-Consciousness), Elohym (Aleph – Unconscious) and the Most High God (Qoph – Spiritual LIGHT). The letter/word QOPH: Qoph-Vav-Pei in Gemetria is 186 or the transposition of the number 168, which is the a priori cause of the spiritual vision (Vesica Piscis). Initially when the spiritual LIGHT comes into the world it is QOPH however, it instantly splits into Yahweh and Elohym: Gods emanating life into the world via the Golden Ratio. This is why both Yahweh and Elohym names reduce to one of the set of the Fibonacci sequence 5/8 thereafter, the LIGHT becomes CHRIST the God/man subsequently, it becomes sunlight: sun worship: a materialistic god (Yahweh).

What this is all saying is that the 32-Elohyms spit off into LIGHT and SHIN (360 = Soul) when the spiritual LIGHT comes into the world. The letter/word Shin has the Gemetria value of 360 and Shin esoterically represents the Earth (soul). The entire first chapter of Genesis is one gigantic Tai Chi symbol (Ying/Yang) representing LIGHT and DARKNESS (Vesica Piscis). Darkness[33] represents the transcendent: the abode of the soul. The soul never enters into the nonexistence of the world only the psyche (human personality: ego-consciousness and unconscious mind): its counterpart does. It is interesting that the word Elohym can represent symbolically all three parts of the Trinity: Yud (Yahweh), Aleph (Elohym) and Qoph (Most High El) and SHIN represents the soul therefore, a Hebrew[34] concordance is in order: Yud-Shin represents “offspring”, Aleph-Shin represents “heat of the sun” and Qoph-Shin represents “assemble together”: thus, the translation would read, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased (Matthew 3:17)” and “Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him for we shall see him as he is (1 John 3:2)”. Note that in both gospels the same word ‘beloved’ is used: that is an extraordinarily important nuance if Christians would only take note of it.

It would be extremely difficult for me to believe that the Adena and Hopewell Indians, in constructing Serpent Mound and the surrounding astrological sites, did not believe in the embrace of the Great Spirit exactly as the Christians did on an esoteric level in reference to the Trinity. In the above description of the number 168 I was merely illustrating precedence, in another religion, for such a belief system, which is analogous to what Serpent Mound is teaching and with what the Adena and Hopewell Indians independently envisaged esoterically on their own. It would also be on the whole difficult to believe that with this evidence of precedence, the evidence of what can be view from line of sight observations of star constellations, the historical mythological lore of star constellations and the evidence of the Solstice, Equinox and Luna alignments on Serpent Mound that the Cygnus constellation was not part of the collective star constellations being used to symbolically construct the site to convey the sequence of the spiritual vision.

a. THE FIRST SERPENT

The first serpent is represented by SERPENT MOUND METEOR CRATER forming the first circle in the Vesica Piscis semi-creating the GREAT BEAR SPIRIT[35]. The first half of this container (Vesica Piscis) comes in from the EAST: the mythical realm of God however, the second half of the container (Vesica Piscis) is the sun (ego-consciousness) acquiescing (humbling and submitting) to the first half. This Vesica Piscis would represent analogously the coming of Christ (the God/man) for the first time. This would represent the Birth of Consciousness.

Simply what this means is that a member of the human community receives a spiritual vision. This individual would be somewhat versed in his tribal traditions, as a lay person, both on a secular and religious level thus, the spiritual vision would be fully absorbed into the fabric of this individual psychic makeup esoterically similar to the blood of the Great Bear Spirit soaking into the earth (soul)[36]. This is similar if not the same as the Alchemical Wedding of Christ marrying His Bride (the soul). And like the Serpent Mound’s Meteor Crater this spiritual vision would make a deep lasting impression upon the psyche[37] of this individual so much so that the entire previous portion of the individual life would be as if it was a mirage: this is why such mystics become hermits and lives far from the maddening crowd. This individual has the potentiality of becoming the messiah of the age. This is analogous to Jesus interpreting the texts of the Old Testament[38] bringing forth its esoteric teachings, which is called Christianity. In the case of the American Indians, in regards to Serpent Mound’s mythos, its basic traditions and belief systems concerning astronomical lore were interpreted and more fully developed into a way of life however, most important to understand concerning such a vision that come to an individual is that it does not necessarily manifest into an interpretation of an already existing main-stream religion. It can take on the form of a psychotic episode and the individual could end up in an asylum[39] for the rest of his or her life or such a vision can take on the form of music or art or any interest in the human experience inadvertently using such spiritual radiance for materialistic purposes. The true purpose of an ordained priesthood in any religious system is to cull such people out of society (similar to harvesting a crop) and aid them in dealing with their vision. This is what the shaman does in the American Indian culture.

b. THE SECOND SERPENT

The second circle that aided in completing the Vesica Piscis is no longer seen. This would represent the people that were living in the indigenous culture that were here at the time that the first serpent appeared. In the Judeao Christian traditions this would be the Jews of Palestine at the Birth of Christ. The individual receiving the spiritual vision, like the rest of his or her community, would initially be solely dominated by ego-consciousness (the Sun = Yahweh) however the vision subjugate the ego-consciousness of the individual receiving the vision. The individual receiving the vision would attempt to integrate it into the mores of his culture that he has learned all his life. The FIRST SERPENT returns to the transcendent, which is analogous to the Ascension of Christ. Some of the followers of the individual receiving the vision would transform into the spiritual sages of their times teaching the wisdom of the Great Bear Spirit: Big Dipper (Ursa Major) similar to Christ’s twelve disciples. These people would have Orenda[40] about them: many of the followers will also receive a vision, which is what was conveyed in the New Testament concerning Pentecost. Eventually, knowledge of the Great Bear Spirit’s teachings would be forgotten and the spiritual radiance: Orenda would degrade into ego-consciousness: the Sun in generations to come. The first and second serpents are no longer remembered: descending generations will eventually collapse into a psychic state of total amnesia living a pseudo-understanding of their religious beliefs.

Not all the people in the community would listen to their new shaman: “And he (Jesus) said, Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country (Luke 4:24)”. Traditionally such an individual having a spiritual psychic experience in the American Indian community was brought to the tribe’s shaman and this individual would be taught to accept his or her vision and not to reject it as explained in the book “Black Elk Speaks[41]”. The process of the individual receiving the vision, attempting to define and understand it, is more or less a psychic knee jerk reaction that takes place without conscious thought causing the spiritual vision to end as quickly as it began[42]. In Christianity this attempt to define and understand the vision is simultaneously the Birth, Crucifixion and Ascension of Christ[43] and the very reason that Christ had to die on the cross. Christ’s mission on earth is complete. In some cases the new shaman would take those members of the community that believes in his or her vision and go off creating a new tribe, which is similar to Jesus having a group of followers. In other cases the old shaman dies and the community appoints a new shaman. In the case of Christianity Jesus becomes the new Sun of God. Sun, because he became the new ego-consciousness (new sunrise): i.e. the new status quo, which is imbued with spiritual Orenda (Vesica Piscis).

Orthodoxy comes quickly to a new religion and the original beliefs and traditions (revelation) is cast into dogmatic stones where spiritual life is drained from them. No longer are the spiritual interpretations of the myths the primary goal of the spiritual leaders but rather the literal interpretations of them (teachings and historical records) become tantamount[44]: this is similar to religion degrading into the letter of the law rather than the spirit of it[45]. All other spiritual and/or esoteric interpretations thereafter, would become heretical (Gnostic)[46]. This fundamentalism becomes the new paradigm, which is merely a shell of the original revelation however, it must be pointed out that within the written dogmatic texts is the true revelation of the original vision. Christ is crucified by being codified esoterically to the sacred scriptures. Christ is then buried in his tomb: the sacred scriptures. Christ can only rises from the dead when sincere supplicants (initiates) interpret the texts or myths properly to obtain their spiritual meanings: this latter in Christianity is called the Eucharist.

c. THE THIRD SERPENT

The THIRD SERPENT is actually the second coming of the FIRST SERPENT (analogously this is the second coming of Christ) however, this time it comes through the GREAT BEAR SPIRIT’S teachings. This is similar to Christianity continuously revising itself throughout its long two thousand year history, which can be seen in its great artworks[47]. This was also noted in the long history of the Egyptian Empire going back to 3500BC.

The THIRD SERPENT is basically the SECOND SERPENT teachings of the Great Bear Spirit waning to such a point in the life of an individual that his or her personal desire to know the Truth invokes a spiritual vision however, it is both the vision and the old spiritual teachings that creates the new Vesica Piscis: raison d’être (reason for existence). This is not a new paradigm but rather the fading tradition being reinterpreted in different ways[48].

This THIRD SERPENT is the serpent that is represented on SERPENT MOUND. Actually, a bit of the SECOND SERPENT is seen at the tip of the Oval Shape Egg. At the tip of the Oval Shape Egg is a diamond shape in reverse of the diamond shape in the THIRD SERPENT’S head. They are both facing in opposite directions. This diamond shape at the edge of the Oval Shape Egg is neither an altar nor is it a crystal[49]. It should be noted that in the serpent effigy the diamond shaped area in the head is empty: there is nothing there whereas, the diamond shape at the other end of the Oval Shaped Egg is raised up on its own mound as if it could fit in the empty space of the serpent effigy’s head. It is my conjecture that this diamond shape mound represents symbolically ego-consciousness, which was forced out of the serpent effigy by Orenda. The THIRD SERPENT represents the Moon and the SECOND SERPENT represents the Sun. That is why the sun is setting during the Summer Solstice. The Oval Shape Egg and the serpent effigy as the Vesica Piscis is a new raison d’être (reason for existence) that has been prepared by the transcendent and the needs of the individual into what Christians call the Eucharist: Word of God. In the case of SERPENT MOUND it would be the word of the Great Bear Spirit. There is an eternal oscillation between the Sun Serpent and the Moon Serpent. They each take on each other roles exactly like the fluctuation of the Fibonacci sequence of the Golden Ratio: as each set in the sequence moves on to the next set two become three and three become two, etc., etc. This is just as it is recorded in the Gnostic Teachings of Christianity: the female[50] (Moon) will become male (Sun) and the male (Sun) will become female (Moon). When a dreamer brings forth unconscious content it becomes conscious or ego-driven.

The SECOND SERPENT[51] is the setting sun however, the SECOND SERPENT is what the FIRST SERPENT had degraded into: this is symbolic of the eternal life cycle of the Birth and Death process not only on a physical level but on a spiritual level: the birth and death of the Vesica Piscis. The appearance of the THIRD SERPENT is consistent with Judeao Christian biblical teachings that a new day starts at sundown: the Second Coming of Christ. The revelatory vision denotes a new creation. The old heaven and earth has passed away and the new heaven and earth are now coming into being.

4. ANOTHER LOOK AT THE FIRST AND SECOND SERPENTS

In all honesty there was no THIRD SERPENT on Serpent Mound though that lesson would have been thoroughly discussed as to what would naturally transpire in subsequent generations. There is no way of preventing this amnesia from taking place in the human psyche seeing the natural slothfulness and complacency of the human psyche always seeking utopia and/or an easier ways of living. Serpent Mound is basically for the initiate that has received his or her vision. The average person living within society will never know of esotericism though that individual will be thoroughly versed in his or her religious lore and cultural mores. These teaching are instilled into the mores of the cultures for that day an individual is graced with such a vision: he or she will then have the means to deal with the vision. The mores of the culture mandate that the religious beliefs are maintained and preserved for future generations. It would have taken an entire community’s efforts to create the mound building culture even though most of them would not have known what it was all about.

5. CYGNUS: THE NORTHERN CROSS

When I look at the alignment of constellations representing SERPENT MOUND PENINSUAL PLATEAU: Ursa Major, Draco, and Ursa Minor (Little Dipper within the fold of Draco’s constellation) I would have to add the Cygnus[52] constellation to that group as the primary impetus to the spiritual vision. The question has to be asked, what initiated the vision, which is symbolically represented by a meteor coming out of Draco and smashing into the earth (symbolically the soul)? In ancient times the Draco constellation represents Ladon, the dragon that guarded the gardens of the Hesperides in Greek mythology. This is just how Yahweh guarded the Garden of Eden: “do not eat of the tree”. Was it not Heracles[53] that killed Draco to get at the apples? In Judeao Christian parlance Draco would be Yahweh (serpent) and Heracles would be Elohym (serpent)[54]: this is Mercury’s caduceus: the messenger of the gods. Is it not Yahweh (sun = ego-consciousness) that has to humble himself (sunset) in order for there to be a spiritual vision? If the sun had not set on the seventh day of creation in the Genesis Creation Account the serpent could never have given the fruit of the tree to Eve. How it is known that it was evening is because the texts clearly state Yahweh was walking in the cool of the day and it also mentions that he could not see Adam or Eve, “where art thou Adam”? Evil cannot help but destroy itself through laziness continuously seeking rest: the would-be Promise Land is always over the next horizon.

To understand how the Northern Cross is connected to Serpent Mound the nature of both serpents (Sun and Moon alignments) have to be understood. Serpent Mound is the axis mundi of a gigantic Lunar Zodiacal Mythological Calendar: 13-Moon Cycles. I do not know the direction in which meteor impacted the site and I do not believe it would make any difference esoterically.

Serpent Mound is set up to display Cygnus’ Northern Cross : it is done so in the exact same manner in which it is displayed in the first word of Genesis: BERESHITH. I am not saying here that either culture influenced the other. The serpent’s head is facing northwest however, the serpent effigy is aligned to the North Star whereas the Summer Solstice sun is setting in the northwest. In other words the two serpents are facing each other having just created the Vesica Piscis (Oval Shape Egg). The Summer Solstice sun rose in the Northeast. The question that has to be asked is why is the serpent situated between the rising and the setting sun? The answer is of cause is that a new serpent has come to replace the dying serpent (setting sun). Here is where it can be hypothesized that there is a THIRD SERPENT but knowing as I do the redundancy factor in esotericism the two serpents facing off are a repetitive symbol of the first Vesica Piscis. In other word more details of the spiritual vision are being expressed by going into some of the minutia as repetitive examples are inferred. Now extrapolate that out to the entire Lunar Zodiac: 13-moon cycles[55]. I think you guessed by now the second cycle in the Solar Calendar cycle. In other words the Solar Year has been turned into a more spiritual year: the Lunar Zodiacal Calendar. The Solar Calendar is used for secular chores such as farming and other mundane activities however, the Moon Calendar maps out religious events: see Judaism, Christianity and Islam for examples of Luna Calendars.

Serpent Mound has the Lunar Calendar 18.6-years rising and setting in the east and west, which is shown ‘crossing’ the body of the serpent purposely, creating a symbol of the Northern Cross (Cygnus). The serpent is rising up the body of the Great Bear: from south to north and the lunar alignments are from east to west. Symbolically, the Kundalini Serpent is rising to go out of the crown of the head not towards North Star but to the Northern Cross.

The reason that I am absolutely certain that the solar and lunar alignments are symbolizing Cygnus: the Northern Cross is because this is precisely how the first two verses of Genesis are set up. Genesis uses the symbolism of the ALEPH to represent the cross. Below are a few examples in the Genesis Creation Account indicating there is precedence for using the sun and the moon symbols as analogies to the Cygnus constellation.

(A) ALEPTH is spelt Aleph (1), Lemmed (30) and Pei (80): break these three letters individually down to their lowest common denominator and the quotients are 1, 3 and 8 of the transposition of 318, which is the Gemetria value of the word ‘Cross’. These three letters in ALEPH also total to 111, which points to the Trinity: Aleph (1), Yud (10) and Qoph (100). In the Zohar Aleph is defined as Elohym, which in turn is defined as the Moon and Yahweh is defined as the Sun. Aleph is the second letter of the letter/word RESH: Resh-Aleph-Shin. It is this letter/word RESH that is inserted into be…ith to form be-resh-ith: BERESHITH. This in turn translate into interpreting the word ‘be-resh-ith’ to read:

  1. a.be = “in the beginning”
  2. resh = “Elohym separated the beginning and ends of the heavens and the beginning and ends of the earth”.
  3. ith = “and the earth was without form and void and darkness was on the face of the deep and the spirit of Elohym moved over the face of the waters”.

When reading the second verse of Genesis it will be seen that the first verse ends with the word ‘earth’ and the second verse starts with the word ‘earth’ thus, Aleph: i.e. Elohym would be sitting between the ‘heavens and the earth’ between SHIN (Earth) & RESH (Heavens) right on top of the galactic core.

(B) In the first word of Genesis: Bereshith, the Sun is setting and the Moon is rising intertwining symbolizing the CROSS.

(C) The first four chapters of Genesis create a gigantic Zodiac/Calendar year’s graphic image. Between the first two verses of Genesis are Scorpio, which represents the first verse and the second verse, represent Sagittarius. The galactic core can be seen between these two signs. In fact both Scorpio’s and Sagittarius’ arrows crisscross pointing to the galactic core[56], which is exactly where Cygnus: the Northern Cross is (at the intersection of the two arrows). Remember that Draco is in Sagittarius: one of the two signs pointing to Cygnus: the Northern Cross.

6. SUN AND MOON ALIGNMENTS

It is because of the scientific measurements of the Solstices, Equinoxes[57] and Moon[58] alignments that all of this can be said about SERPENT MOUND. It definitely follows the esoteric traditions of the Judeao Christian literature. In the Old Testament Yahweh represented the Sun and Elohym represented the Moon[59]. Both these concepts are well laid out in the first word of Genesis: BERESHITH and is prefigured in the first letter of Genesis: PEI/BETH.

“The cycle of the moon is not as simplistic as that of the sun, for the moon has a complicated orbit that requires time to discern its horizon rising and setting points. Instead of one year to complete its cycle, nearly nineteen years is necessary. Because of this, William F. Romain, in his capacity as archaeoastronomer, discovered six lunar alignments corresponding to the widely dispersed chronological events of the 18.6-year lunar calendar. His findings suggest that, like the findings of Ray Hively and Robert Horn at the Newark, Ohio, circle-octagon earthwork, the designer of the Great Serpent understood the entire lunar cycle[60]”.

Here are the crucial characteristics of SERPENT MOUND that raises it to the level of esotericism thus, to the level of a Mystery School. All else can be explained away by the artistic skills of artisans. The seven swirls in the body of the serpent representing the measurements of the Solstices, Equinoxes and Moon alignments spanning the array of seven swirls shows a dedication that goes far beyond that of a worldly artisan. To begin with those that constructed this site would have had to have a sophisticated understanding of what they were doing before they began or else it would have taken several generations to complete the project: 18.6 years[61] is almost one generation. To align the Lunar Measurements took precision surveying skill that only teamwork could accomplish.

Ross Hamilton’s first work[62] is problematic in many respects. This work introduces Serpent Mound to the public and it is an excellent read and I obtained a good deal of my facts from it. It lays out a great deal of scientific information relating to the serpent effigy however, as a symbolist myself I am extremely cautious in advancing theories that have no apparent foundations and cannot be proven: I believe wholeheartedly in demonstrable evidence. I’m speaking to Ross’ hypothesis of the Greek alphabet formed by the serpent effigy and/or the Flower of Life. There is no doubt in my mind that the Vesica Piscis is represented in the Oval Shape Egg and therefore, the Flower of Life would have to be an intricate part of the Serpent Mound site especially when considering that there are a number of example of the same Vesica Piscis. I don’t see how one can force the shape of the Serpent Mound and/or the Greek alphabet into the Flower of Life: for the Flower of Life is a graphic image that displays many Vesica Pisces’s. Take for example that Ross’s book has an illustration of the Hebrew Kabbalistic Tree of Life in the Flower of Life. This same idea is shown in a number of other works by other authors discussing Sacred Geometry. These authors do this to add weight to their thesis. Ross takes for granted that this is a valid representation of the Tree of Life in Sacred Geometry or why include it in books however, in my researches[63] I demonstrate quite effectively that the Kabbalistic Tree of Life is found within a single Vesica Piscis: in the form of the Natural Array. A study of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life demonstrates that both numbers and letters have a symbiosis: it is a nuance that is born out of each letter having a symbolic meaning and an alphanumeric designate. Those that use the image of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life with a tail attached to it, ostensibly, to give room for the invisible DAAT are misguided. DAAT is neither a letter nor a number for it embodies collectively all the teachings of the numbers and letters. There is a reason that there is a 33 rd degree Mason and a reason that freezing is at 32° and a reason that there are only 32-uses of the word Elohym in the first chapter of Genesis. The number thirty-two (32) is freezing and the number thirty-three (33) is thawing. The two concepts of freezing and thawing are diametrically opposites of each other. Anything thirty-two (32) or below is freezing and vice versa anything thirty-three (33) and above is thawing. There should not be a 33° Mason: that is an oxymoron. Once that degree in Masonry is obtained there is nothing more to learn and to stay on as a member is to merely to hold onto secular power within the organization, which means that a so-call 33° Mason had learned nothing: he might as well be a fledgling initiate. Once the 32° in Masonry is reached nothing else can be taught to that individual. It is exactly the same as Virgil, Beatrice and Saint Bernard guiding Dante Alighieri through the three realms of spirit: Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradiso[64]. Once Saint Bernard got Dante to the middle of the White Rose he leaves the scene. Dante had to envisage the Trinity on his own.

7. THE KUNDALINI SERPENT AND THE SEVEN LIGHT CHAKRAS

The synchronicity of Draco (Serpent), Ursa Minor (Little Bear) and Ursa Major (Big Bear) constellations being within the same family of star constellations[65] in relationship to Serpent Mound is too coincidental to overlook. In fact historically speaking from great antiquity Draco was considered part of the Ursa Major constellation of stars.

It is uncanny that the coiled tail of the serpent is symbolic of the lingam that lies dormant at the seat of the spine and the seven uncoiling swirls in the body of the serpent appears to be rolling out the measurements of the Sun and Moon (the heavens). These seven uncoiling swirls are the Seven Light Chakras in Hindu mythology. For Genesis Creation Account says that the two great luminaries: Sun and Moon, will bring light to the earth (soul). The fact that the Serpent is at the mouth of the Great Bear points to the Word of God (PEI). The Bear Clan were said to be healers and/or shamans. These same concepts of the Kundalini and the Seven Light Chakras are esoterically codified to the first four chapters of Genesis.

8. THE GREAT BEAR SPIRIT

The Hunting of the Great Bear, in brief, concerns four hunters hunting for the great bear. They are so intent on catching this bear in their chase they do not realize that they have been waft into the night sky. The four hunters are the four seasons. The bear wakes up in spring and goes through each of the seasons until the four hunters catch up and kills it. As it falls to the ground its blood soak in causing the color of leaves and then winter has set in. The Great Bear is known to be within the square of four stars in the heavens representing the bowl of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) and the hunters are seen close behind.

There are many esoteric nuances that are codified to this legend and those that have eyes to see and ears to hear will seek them out. This American Indian mythological tale is what interested me being that SERPENT MOUND’S PENINSULA PLATEAU in the shape of a bear was situated within a crater (bowl) brought down from the starry skies. As it can be seen it was not difficult to make the connection between the formation’s shape of the peninsula plateau and the legend of the Great Bear Spirit. Think of it this way the legend of Hunting of the Great Bear is repetitious of all that has been discussed in this paper.

9. IN CONCLUSION

It is not difficult to envisage, with careful study and consideration of the evidence available, that the true understanding of SERPENT MOUND site can be ascertained. I see Serpent Mound as a Mystery School where the teacher and student can walk the perimeter of this thirteen hundred and seventy foot effigy as the sage instructs the student into the deeper esoteric mysteries of the Great Bear’s mythological teachings though, that student would first have to prove his or her worthiness to obtain that knowledge. Questions as to the student’s observations of the mound would certainly be on the program. I can only imagine that the student would have been thoroughly prepared with more than a basic education and then the shaman would see where the student’s thoughts went from there and this would determined how much of the esoteric knowledge would be doled out. How does the student deal with the esoteric knowledge he or she was given? The questions asked will certainly alert the shaman as to the sincerity that the student is putting into his or her studies. There is no shame in going the way of the secular and worldly life however, there are those few amongst the many that need more than the world can provide and this is where the art of esotericism come into focus for those rare individuals. There are many that claim they want the spiritual way until they learn what that entails. Like the rich man in the New Testament when he realized he would have to give up all his wealth[66] to follow Christ. That was too much for him and he turned back.

10. ORENDA: A FINAL WORD

Orenda is a word that I borrow from the American Indians to describe that inexplicable spiritual radiance that has guided me these past 39-years in my quest to know myself and the God that had created me. I see the universe in a whole different light then most sojourning on the earth. I know that outwardly all is a direct reflection of what is within my soul/psyche and this is how I live my life and view myself. My views of the outer world are not that of the uninitiated: those that do not know Orenda. Like the gorget I presented above. I may perform the same rituals, wear the same cloths and speak the same language but my mental acuity towards societal mores is that of a spiritual dimension.

The earth[67] is symbolically my soul/psyche. Symbolically the outward manifestation of the earth, and the universe that surrounds it, is there to edify me more fully on a rational level concerning my soul/psyche. The earth is a molten ball of fire with a thin outer crust similar to the skin envelope protecting the body. The earth is symbolic of the soul/psyche peering ad infinitum into itself and needs the outer crust to protect it against the cold and emptiness of nothing. The star studded universe is all the hidden mysteries within my soul/psyche that needs to be eternally contemplated with Orenda as my only confidant. The outer crust can also be said to be the clothing of the body (cultural mores). All of these outer mysteries are the symbolic outer manifestations (illusions and mirages) of my spiritual being but this does not make them any less real.

The inner molten fire of the earth is symbolically the spiritual being that I am while I am in the world and this molten fire seeps through the crust of the earth as life giving energies similar to sweat cooling off the body. The molten fire is my spiritual being in the world of materialism similar to the digestion of food. The fire is perpetually liquefying the solidity of the world so that it becomes malleable for my creative thought. I am a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth because there can never be a time that I can rest my head for in the day that I do I will die spiritually. The moment that I rest, from learning about myself, all solidifies around me and I become useless to myself: tedious: dead lying eternally within a mausoleum of my own design. I would eternally be dwelling on the same thoughts and continuously going down the same paths of reasoning: that finiteness will become my whole universe, my whole being. Logic would be dead and there would be no new adventures that I can explore in the inner realm of my being.

Orenda has taken me out of the cloistered world I had built myself and cause it to fade away as if it was a mirage and a vast new world opened up before me. My main obsession in life dissipated[68] like dew in the morning it evaporated and an infinite amount of possibilities presented themselves. Through the wisdom of Orenda I learn to reject all of these new possibilities because they were the same old dream dressed in new garments. Orenda showed me that knowing God was to learn about myself. Not that I was God but rather that I live my life through Him. My life may be as cloistered as it was before, at least from the outward appearance however, through Orenda the spiritual universe has been opened to me and I found that I could reach across the vast expanse of creation. I see Orenda in all that is being taught to me for she is eternally inside and all around me. For we are PEI/BETH: “in the beginning”.

[1] The Serpent Mound Meteor Crater (Serpent Mound can actually be seen in this interactive map)

14 km = 8.6996 miles (circumference 27.33… miles)

The Ohio Journal of Science, v110, n3 (June, 2010), 34-43: http://hdl.handle.net/1811/52788

[2] “Including all three parts, the Serpent Mound extends about 1,370 feet (420 m), and varies in height from less than a foot to more than three feet (30–100 cm). Conforming to the curve of the land on which it rests, with its head approaching a cliff above a stream, the serpent winds back and forth for more than eight hundred feet and seven coils, and ends in a triple-coiled tail. The serpent head has an open mouth extending around the east end of a 120-foot (37 m)-long hollow oval feature. The effigy’s extreme western feature is a triangular mound approximately 31.6 feet (9.6 m) at its base and long axis”.


Mystery Serpent Mound

. PEEBLES Bradley Lepper, curator of archeology for Ohio History Connection in Columbus, will lead the lecture The Mysteries of Serpent The most ancient of Ohio's forgotten mysteries, Adams County's Serpent Mound, is not haunted in the classical sense. No vengeful ghost walks Joe Rogan and Graham Hancock discuss the archeoastronomy of the native american earth work Serpent mound. Serpent Mound is the world's largest surviving effigy mound a mound in the late 1800s, but the origins of Serpent Mound are still a mystery. 00:15:26 - The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County is the largest effigy mound on the face of the planet, a 1348 earthen sculpture of a snake Such is the mystery of Serpent Mound. The mounds of olden times were mostly for burial purposes, but this particular embankment or raised I present here the SERPENT MOUND effigy images for the reason that, on the Hopewell Indian mounds: THE MYSTERY OF THE SERPENT MOUND2 and The Great Serpent Mound is a 1348-foot-long prehistoric effigy mound in Ohio. Scientists are sure what it's purpose was. Secrets of the Underground | Tuesdays at 10/9c The Great Serpent Mound is a 1348-foot-long prehistoric Read about the mysterious earthwork Serpent Mound in Adams County. The large serpent effigy continues to be a mystery to all who visit. Serpent Mound The only known effigy mound in the country rests on a bluff overlooking the north shore of Rice Lake in Serpent Mound Provincial Park, south of Essentially the United States' equivalent of Stonehenge, the Great Serpent Mound is a raised, fortified pile of earth and rocks built in the shape of an animal of Serpent Mound: Since its 1847 discovery modern Americans, the effigy mound has been attributed to three different indigenous cultures. Mystery of the serpent mound (9781583940037):Ross Hamilton:Books. The Serpent mound, Adams County, Ohio. Mystery of the mound and history of the serpent. Various theories of the effigy mounds and the Representing an unwinding serpent, the mound is sheathed in mystery and controversy. The serpent is thought most to be about to swallow an egg. However The Serpent Mound, Adams County, Ohio: Mystery of the Mound and History of the Serpent: Various Theories of the Effigy Mounds and the Mound Builders: E O Product Information. The mysterious Serpent Mound in the Ohio Valley is a masterpiece of prehistoric architecture. Its ermous size alone inspires awe and Listen to 10-Minute Mystery: The Great Serpent Mound and 77 other episodes Ohio Mysteries. No signup or install required. Preface |" GREAT SERPENT MoUND HAS BEEN classified with a large collection of North American prehistoric earthen mounds extending from the East Coast The Serpent Mound Adams County Ohio Mystery Of The Mound And History Of The Serpent Original 1907 Hardcover With Rare Separate Serpent Effigy Foldout Read The Serpent Mound Adams County Ohio Mystery of the Mound and History of the Serpent PDF Free The Serpent Mound, Adams County, Ohio: Mystery of the Mound and History of the Serpent:Various Theories of the Effigy Mounds and the Mound Builders. Serpent Mound Mysteries. Serpent Mound is the largest "serpent effigy" known to man. It is a 1/4 mile long mound shaped like a snake and located in Adams

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Regional Connections and Conclusion

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the serpent symbolism of several Adena and Hopewell sites. The authors suggest that in light of this evidence, there is no reason why the Great Serpent Mound in Adams County Ohio—located near the epicenter of Adena and Hopewell—could not be considered as possibly being a site of one or the other, if not both of these cultures. This is especially true in light of much of the evidence (including early radiocarbon dates) collected by William Romain and his associates in recent years. One objection to this article will undoubtedly be that the sites mentioned are from Kentucky, Illinois, West Virginia, the East Coast, and Southern Ontario, while the Great Serpent Mound is located in Southern Ohio. However, we would point out that the archaeological record strongly suggests close cultural connections between the Ohio Valley Adena and Hopewell and the manifestations beyond. Furthermore (and perhaps most importantly), the recent evidence obtained from DNA research (26) and studies of physical skeletal morphology (27) clearly reveal that actual people spread out from the Ohio Valley during the time of Adena and Hopewell, likely taking new ideas and forms of ritualism with them. One of these ideas may well have been a ceremonialism and veneration of an early form of the Great Serpent, as represented at Ohio’s Great Serpent Mound.

Top image: The Great Serpent Mound, a pre-historic effigy mound, along Ohio Brush Creek in Ohio ( Szecska / flickr )


Mound Constructed, Great Serpent

The Great Serpent Mound is a large effigy mound located in rural southwestern Ohio, and it was built on a high plateau that overlooks the Ohio Brush Creek. According to the Biblical Timeline with World History, it was dated back to 500 AD. The mound measures more than 1,300 feet long and reaches up to 3 feet in height. It is one of the largest serpent effigy mounds that once dotted the North American landscape, but were destroyed after the lands were converted to agricultural use.

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The serpent’s head was constructed so that it points to the east, while the tail is oriented towards the west with a winding body in between. One of the most interesting parts of this earthen serpent is the oval mound in front of its head. There are two different perspectives on what exactly this oval mound is. The first one being the eye of the serpent on profile and the second as an animal or egg that is about to be swallowed by the serpent.

Just like other earthworks such as the Nazca Lines and other effigy mounds, the use of the Great Serpent Mound is still considered a mystery. The serpent’s head points to the summer solstice sunset, while the tail aligns with the winter solstice sunrise, which makes it possible that the ancient people who built the mound used it to mark the time and seasons to sow and harvest. Each coil of its winding body corresponds to lunar phases, as well as solstices and equinoxes, while the egg (or eye) was perhaps constructed to mark a solar eclipse.

It may have also been used as a compass from the resemblance to the constellation Draco. Its head was used to help mark the true north orientation in a compass. The Great Serpent Mound, however, was never used as a burial which was common for other ancient North American cultures.

Mysterious Origin

Who made the Great Serpent Mound is another mystery as the people who once lived near the area did not leave behind any clues about their tribes or culture. One of the civilizations that flourished in the Ohio area around the time of the construction of the Great Serpent Mound was the Fort Ancient Culture. It was suggested that these people may have built the effigy mound. Others point to the Adena or Hopewell Cultures which dominated Ohio and the surrounding areas. Although its origins remain shrouded in mystery, it is clear that it was rebuilt by many groups over the years.


What is the Meaning of Ohio's Mysterious Serpent Mound?

I visited here a few years ago. I had a few impressions:

1) the mound echoes the landscape around it. It is on a hill with a river winding below it. You don’t see this in the aerial shots as the image is flattened out from above.

2) I could visualize Indians parading along the top of this “serpent,” enacting ceremonies for rain, marriage, coming of age, etc.

3) I wasn’t sure how much constant grass mowing was wearing down the mound over time.

Used to live near there. There have been interesting developments in the area about the Greater Miami peoples. In the 90’s an excavation was started on a settlement of the people that lived in the area long before the pilgrims ever set foot onto the continent. A few years ago there were several shows made about this mound and its counterpart somewhere near England (Scotland? don’t remember honestly). ONe of the shows also went on to show animal-formed mounds in the Midwest. It was an interesting show as it was my introduction into what LIDAR was doing at that time and how it could rewrite what we know about North America, the Incas, and Aztecs. The one thing I Remember about this mound is that it was not touristy. Yeah, we all knew about it but it wasn’t like it was on the tourist list for places to must see. It was in this parking lot in eighth grade I first got behind the wheel of a car after drinking 2 beers.

[thumbing through my Encyclopedia Britannica] Hmmm, and all along, I thought Delaware was the first state.

What drew my attention was the Ohio snake's coils (3 down, 4 up). Could they have astronomical significance similar to that of the mayan, inca and aztec snake gods? Knowledge that was lost or forgotten over hundreds of years of disease, drought, earthquakes or war. Maybe the annual flooding along the Mississippi was just to much for them and they left for warmer pastures further west - the Yucatan peninsula:

Ohio snake, equinox points:

Aztec snake: Quetzalcoatl, god of knowledge, astrology and of priests, son of the creator god, a blond, blue-eyed stranger. Also known as, or very closely associated with the Mayan Kukuclan.
&ldquoHundreds of North and South American Indian and South Pacific legends tell of a white-skinned, bearded lord who traveled among the many tribes to bring peace about 2,000 years ago. This spiritual hero was best known as Quetzelcoatl.&rdquo

Mayan snake: Kukuklan, teacher of writing and knowledge, the Vision God, underwater serpent, feathered serpent, bird messenger between the gods and the priests/royalty the alterego of Sun God, Kininch, who controls droughts. He &ldquo emerged from the ocean, and disappeared in it afterward.&rdquo Chichin Itzu is a calender and twice each year at the equinoxs, KuKuklan appears to slither down the side. The Snake King dynasty is associated with Mayans.

Inca snake: Pacha Kamaq, the creator son of the Sun God, a serpent from the sea who, tossed back into the sea (or a lake) became the god of fish when he wasn't making earthquakes. Pachacamac, the city dedicated to him, was a site of the Oracle - a center of knowledge and astrology. Either he was treated as invisible or his priests had to erect a cloth between them and his totum in the shape of a man so they couldn't look at it. Again, it's three down, four up on the coils, same as Ohio

My personal conjecture is that it’s a retelling of the serpent and the woman in the garden.

I drive by it about once a week. A friend’s family owned the farm in the Brush Creek flood plain downhill from it across State Route 73. It is too high on the hillside to have been likely for farming with such lush farmland just down the hill. Just a personal opinion, but I’ve lived here a couple decades now.

I’m curious as to how the know when it was built.

If you can track that down on YT, I’d appreciate it.

There *may* be a topic that talks about that in the keyword, but meanwhile, it has to do with radiocarbon dating of some organic material (possibly an old campfire) which tested out from the Fort Ancient period. That is likely to mean that the existing old structure was used by the later group, rather than they built it.

There's a possibility that the figure was not originally in the form we see now, since it has different strata laid down at different times. The original length and shape may have been quite different. But my seat of the pants guess is, the serpent is really a comet (hence the big circle at the head) and then it becomes a matter of what the lowest strata yields to scientific dating.

IOW, time to ping another list.

That’s something I often wonder about when it comes to site or non-organic artifact dating.

The organic remains may be no more related to when and who built the thing than any trash I leave at Stonehenge is.

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Ohio's Serpent Mound: a mystery for the ages

I am reminded of Spinal Tap guitarist Nigel Tufnel's remarks during the break of their heavy-metal anthem "Stonehenge": "No one knows who they were . or what they were doing . " Which isn't quite true, of course: the 'henge has long been considered a site of both astronomical and ritual importance to the Bronze Agers who visited it. The strange and impressive Serpent Mounds of Ohio, however, are another story altogether.

Mound-building native Americans were active in many parts of what is now the U.S., but usually their earthen structures were just that: hill-like mounds, often used as burial sites. Not so the Serpent Mound. While there are a number of animal-shaped effigy mounds, as they're known, in the upper Midwest, the Serpent is by far the world's largest: it measures about 1,370 feet in length and between one and three feet high. Its beautiful and precise shape are also a marvel (drawing inevitable comparisons to Peru's Nazca Lines and other such ancient super-structures), often attributed to the Adena culture (800 BC - 100 AD).

But what's it for? No burial sites were found within the mound, and while it does seem to have some astronomical significance -- the oval-to-head area of the serpent is aligned to the Summer Solstice sunset and the snake's coils align with the Winter Solstice sunrise -- but considering the extraordinarily elaborate nature of its design, experts believe that its usefulness as an enormous calendar was merely secondary. Also adding to the mystery is the serpent's open jaws, which surround a 120-foot hollow oval feature, thought variously to be an egg, the sun, the body of a frog, or merely the remnant of a platform serving to support something. So what does it all mean? Your guess is as good as ours!


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