The famous “four-level” opens in Los Angeles

On September 22, 1953, the first four-level (or “stack”) interchange in the world opens in Los Angeles, California, at the intersection of the Harbor, Hollywood, Pasadena, and Santa Ana freeways. It was, as The Saturday Evening Post wrote, “a mad motorist’s dream”: 32 lanes of traffic weaving in eight directions at once. Today, although the four-level is justly celebrated as a civil engineering landmark, the interchange is complicated, frequently congested, and sometimes downright terrifying. (As its detractors are fond of pointing out, it’s probably no coincidence that this highway octopus straddles not only a fetid sulfur spring but also the former site of the town gallows.)

Before the L.A. four-level was built, American highway interchanges typically took the form of a cloverleaf, with four circular ramps designed to let motorists merge from one road to another without braking. But cloverleafs were dangerous, because people merging onto the highway and people merging off of the highway had to jockey for space in the same lane. Four-level interchanges, by contrast, eliminate this looping cross-traffic by stacking long arcs and straightaways on top of one another. As a result, each of their merges only goes in one direction–which means, at least in theory, that they are safer and more efficient.

When the iconic Hollywood-Harbor-Pasadena-Santa Ana four-level was born, it was the most expensive half-mile of highway in the world, costing $5.5 million to build. (Today, highway engineers estimate, $5.5 million would pay for just 250 feet of urban freeway.) Road-builders disemboweled an entire neighborhood–4,000 people lost their homes–and excavated most of the hill it stood on, dumping the rubble in the nearby Chavez Ravine, where Dodger Stadium stands today.

Though its design has inspired dozens of freeway interchanges across the United States, many Angelenos dread their encounters with the four-level: It’s as crowded (500,000 drivers use it every day), stressful and treacherous as the cloverleafs of yesteryear. Still, it’s an indispensable part of the fabric and the mythology of Los Angeles.

READ MORE: Los Angeles: A History

While the highway oriented east–west at this intersection has consistently been numbered US𧅥, the numerical designation of road oriented north–south at this interchange has changed over the years. Originally designated U.S. Route 66 and U.S. Route 6 and later signed as State Route 11, all of these designations were eventually removed from the intersection and replaced with the current designation of Route 110.

In July 2006, the freeway interchange was officially named in honor of Bill Keene, former KNX and KNXT traffic and weather reporter, although the new name is rarely used. Keene referred to the interchange as "The Stacks" and the "4-H Interchange". During the 1960s, Dick Whittinghill on radio station KMPC sometimes called it the Four Letter Interchange. [2]

The interchange was constructed as a stack interchange because surrounding buildings and terrain made construction of a cloverleaf interchange impractical. The construction of the interchange displaced over 4000 people from their homes and cost $5.5 million - making it the most expensive half-mile of highway ever built at the time. [3] The mainline traffic of US 101 is at the top of the interchange, above the ramps, a rarity in stack interchanges (although a similar configuration would later be used on the M25 to the south of London, with the M23 passing above the ramps).

Its distinctive architecture has long made it a symbol of Los Angeles' post–World War II development, and it appears on numerous postcards from the 1950s and 1960s. [4]

Commercial airlines begin moving their operations from Lockheed Air Terminal in Burbank (present-day Hollywood Burbank Airport) to Los Angeles Airport (present-day Los Angeles International Airport, LAX). Located in Downey, Los Angeles County opens its first publicly-funded animal shelter.

Beacon Light Used at Los Angeles Airport (present-day LAX), 1945. Los Angeles Almanac Photo.

The Cleveland Rams professional football team begins playing in Los Angeles. About 1,500 war veterans camp out in MacArthur Park to protest the housing shortage in Los Angeles. The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum opens. The "Hollywood Ten," seven writers, two directors, and one producer, are charged with contempt of Congress for their refusal to state whether they are Communists. The Hollywood Freeway (101) opens. One of the most infamous crimes in Los Angeles history occurs, the "Black Dahlia" murder. Mobster "Bugsy" Siegel is gunned down at the home of his girlfriend Virginia Hill in Beverly Hills. Plans are revealed for the world's first "four-level grade separation" near downtown Los Angeles, connecting the 101 (Hollywood) and 110 (Harbor and Pasadena) freeways. Los Angeles County begins using telephone area code 213. The Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District is formed to fight the worsening smog.

Elizabeth Short, also known as the "Black Dahlia," in a 1943 Santa Barbara PD photo. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

The Los Angeles City government fires 17 city workers when they refuse to sign loyalty pledges.

The Pacific Electric Railway Company asks the Public Utilities Commission for permission to replace its famous "Red Cars" with buses on 11 of its 17 lines. Ed Roybal becomes the first Mexican American to be elected to the Los Angeles City Council since 1881. The Los Angeles Airport is renamed to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).

U.S. Congressman Edward R. Roybal. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

The U.S. Census records 1,970,358 people in the City of Los Angeles and 4,151,687 people for all Los Angeles County. Louis H. Boyer begins the largest private land development in the nation with a plan for the 17,000-home community of Lakewood. Los Angeles area Congressman (and future President) Richard Nixon wins a U.S. Senate seat in a campaign against Congresswoman Helen Gahagin Douglas.

Congressman Richard Nixon campaigns for the U.S. Senate, 1950. Courtesy of National Archives.

Backyard incinerators are banned in an attempt to reduce smog. Seven Mexican American youths are arrested and beaten by Los Angeles police officers in an incident that becomes known as "Bloody Christmas." Eight officers are later indicted and 36 others are disciplined. The Metropolitan Transit Authority is established. The Los Angeles Rams win their first NFL championship in Los Angeles.

Nevada atomic test 225 miles away observed from Mt. Wilson by Caltech students Stan Wilks & Dave Twining. Photo by Los Angeles Mirror, courtesy of the U.S. Dept. of Energy National Archives.

A major earthquake centered in Kern County jolts Los Angeles, but heavy damage is limited here due to the distance from the epicenter. At least five people are killed. Professor Arie J. Haagen-Smit of the California Institute of Technology first explains conclusively the origins of smog. The Los Angeles City Housing Authority comes under investigation by the California State Un-American Activities Committee. Local congressman Richard Nixon is elected Vice President. U.S. Air Force Plant 42 is established in Palmdale.

Aerial View of U.S. Air Force Plant 42. Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey via

The El Pueblo de Los Angeles State Monument is dedicated. The Pacific Electric Railway cedes control of its bus and red car lines to Metropolitan Coach Lines. The "Four Level" interchange near downtown Los Angeles is completed. The Sepulveda Boulevard underpass running beneath the LAX runways is opened. It is the first tunnel of its kind. The first successful cross channel swim from the mainland to Catalina is made by Jose Cortinas in, 32 hours, 10 minutes, 52 seconds.

Lakewood is incorporated as a city. Los Angeles is hit by its worst ever smog attack, causing air traffic to be diverted from LAX to Burbank and preventing ships from entering the harbor. The J. Paul Getty Museum opens. Simon Rodia completes the Watts Towers. Los Angeles City Mayor C. Norris Poulson, although not favorable to racial integration, but facing the inevitability of a racial discrimination lawsuit by the NAACP, orders desegregation of the Los Angeles Fire Department. The move is made against a good deal of opposition by some rank-and-file white firefighters. Two postal employees are charged as operating large bookmaking operations out of the Terminal Annex Post Office in Downtown Los Angeles. About a dozen other postal employees were alleged to be involved.

Watts Towers by Simon Rodia. Los Angeles Almanac Photo.

The Walt Disney Company opens Disneyland in Anaheim.

Disneyland Entrance, Anaheim, California. Courtesy of the Carol M. Highsmith Archive & Library of Congress.

Baldwin Park, Cerritos La Puente and Downey are incorporated as cities. Los Angeles City lifts its ordinance limiting building heights to 150 feet. California State University at Northridge is established.

Los Angeles City Hall, 1945. Airscapes photo by War Department, courtesy of National Archives.

Rolling Hills, Paramount, Santa Fe Springs, Industry, Bradbury, Irwindale, Duarte, Norwalk, Bellflower and Rolling Hills Estates are incorporated as cities. These ten cities are the largest number of new cities incorporated in Los Angeles County in a single year. After colliding midair with a military jet aircraft, a new DC7B airliner on its first test flight out of Santa Monica Airport crashes into Pacoima Congregational Church in Pacoima with large portions of the wreckage falling into the adjacent playground of Junior High School in Pacoima. The crew of both aircraft are killed, as are two school children on the ground. A third seriously injured child dies a few days later. At least 75 other children at the school are injured. The Brooklyn Dodgers move to Los Angeles. Northern Los Angeles County begins using telephone area code 805. The Whittier Narrows Dam is completed.

Whittier Narrows Dam project, 1957. Courtesy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers & USC Library.

Pico Rivera and South El Monte are incorporated as cities. 78,672 people pack the Los Angeles Coliseum to see the new Los Angeles Dodgers play the San Francisco Giants. The Dodgers win 6-5 (April 18). The remnants of the former Pacific Electric Railway (including the Red Cars) are placed under the control of the newly created Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority. KTLA Channel 5 introduces the first TV news helicopter in the nation in Los Angeles. It is known as the "Telecopter." The first successful double cross channel swim between the mainland and Catalina is made by Greta Anderson (Catalina to Mainland: 10 hours, 49 minutes, 41 seconds Mainland to Catalina: 26 hours, 53 minutes, 28 seconds).

Walnut, Artesia, Rosemead and Lawndale are incorporated as cities. LGBTQ patrons at Cooper Do-nuts shop in Downtown L.A. fight back against Los Angeles police harassment in U.S. history's first open resistance by LGBTQ people against police harassment and abuses. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev visits Los Angeles. Local real estate agents attempt to sell him a home. The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Chicago White Sox to win their first World Series pennant. United Airlines begins the first jet service at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). The jet route links Los Angeles and New York. The Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena opens.

An incident at Cooper Do-nuts shop in Los Angeles sparks the first open push-back by LGBTQ people against police harassment and abuse, 1959.

Los Angeles Dodgers versus Chicago White Sox in a World Series Game at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, 1959. The Sporting News Archives, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Commerce, La Mirada, Temple City, San Dimas and Cudahy are incorporated as cities. The U.S. Census records 2,479,015 people in the City of Los Angeles and 6,039,834 people for all Los Angeles County. The Democratic National Convention is held in Los Angeles. John F. Kennedy is nominated as the Democratic candidate for President. The Lakers professional basketball team moves from Minneapolis to Los Angeles.

John F. Kennedy accepting the presidential nonimation at the Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, 1960. Courtesy of San Jose News & Wikimedia Commons.

Bell Gardens and Hidden Hills are incorporated as cities. The Great Bel Air-Brentwood Fire destroys 484 homes in the worst brush fire in Los Angeles history. The Theme Building is built at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). The Los Angeles City Council later designates it in 1992 as a cultural and historical monument. The last of the old Red Car trolley lines, the Los Angeles to Long Beach line, ceases operations.

Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). Courtesy of Junkyardsparkle, photographer & Wikimedia Commons.

Palmdale is incorporated as a city. The Lakers appear in their first NBA Championship series as the Los Angeles Lakers, but are defeated by the Boston Celtics, 4 games to 3. Dodger Stadium is opened in Chavez Ravine. Hearst Corporation merges two of its newspapers in Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Examiner (founded 1903) and the Los Angeles Herald-Express (founded 1873) to become the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner.

Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles, California. Courtesy of the Jon B. Lovelace Collection of California Photographs in Carol M. Highsmith's America Project & Library of Congress.

The famous “four-level” opens in Los Angeles - HISTORY

Opening Ceremony for the 1984 Summer Olympics at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum | Photo: IOC

1984 - Los Angeles becomes the only U.S. city to host the Summer Olympic Games twice.
1984 - Los Angeles becomes the first city in America with two telephone area codes, as the San Fernando and San Gabriel valleys are designated as 818.
1984 - A new international terminal opens at LAX, named for Mayor Tom Bradley. Today, some 30 airlines operate out of this terminal.

1984 - The Mazda Miata is designed in Los Angeles. In addition to Mazda, Honda, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo and the "Big Three" U.S. automobile manufacturers all have design centers in LA.
1984 - The San Diego Clippers move to LA.

1986 - Running on Olympic fever, the first City of Los Angeles Marathon takes place. It is the largest first-time marathon, at nearly 11,000 people.

1987 - Pope John Paul II visits Los Angeles. His activities include meeting with communications industry leaders and celebrating two outdoor masses.

1987 - James Ellroy’s The Black Dahlia is published, the first of his series of Los Angeles novels, which also includes L.A. Confidential.

Kirk Gibson circles the bases after his legendary home run&nbsp| Photo: Los Angeles Dodgers

1988 - Dodgers outfielder Kirk Gibson hits his legendary World Series home run, widely considered the greatest sports moment in L.A. history.
1988 - The Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum opens.

1990 - Nelson Mandela visits Los Angeles as part of a historic 12-day, 8-city tour of the U.S. Mandela stays at the Millennium Biltmore and addresses a crowd of 70,000 at the Coliseum: "We could not have left the United States without visiting the city which daily nourished the dreams of millions of people the world over."
1990 - US Bank Tower opens. At 73 stories, it would be the tallest building on the West Coast for nearly three decades.
1990 - The Hammer Museum opens in Westwood.

1990 - When the Metro Blue Line connects Downtown to Long Beach, light-rail for commuters returns to the Los Angeles area.

1991 - Lakers star Magic Johnson retires, announcing that he is HIV-positive, giving HIV/AIDS a new platform and making it clear that this disease can affect anyone.

1991 - The 310 area code comes into use for western, southern and eastern Los Angeles.

1992 - Esa-Pekka Salonen takes the baton as conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.

1992 - Opening of the Japanese-American National Museum in Little Tokyo, the only museum in the United States telling the story of Japanese Americans.

1992 - Jay Leno takes over as host of The Tonight Show. "Jaywalking" begins.

1993 - The Museum of Tolerance opens in West LA. Although focused on the Nazi Holocaust, it also examines general issues of tolerance and racism.

Steve McQueen's 1956 Jaguar XKSS at the Petersen Automotive Museum | Photo: Wikimedia Commons

1994 - The Petersen Automotive Museum, one of the world's largest automotive museums, opens on Museum Row at the corner of Fairfax and Wilshire. The museum now spans 100,000 square feet of exhibits, 25 galleries, and over 300 vehicles in its collection.

1994 - The eyes of the world are focused on L.A. as football great O.J. Simpson is arrested for the murder of his wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and Ronald Goldman, following a spectacular slow-speed car chase. “If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit” soon enters the American lexicon.

1994 - The FIFA World Cup is held at venues throughout the United States. Brazil beat Italy 3-2 on penalties in the final match at Rose Bowl Stadium.

Statue of Liberty exhibit at Skirball Cultural Center | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

1996 - The Skirball Cultural Center opens in Brentwood as a museum of Jewish history and culture.
1996 - The first Los Angeles Times Festival of Books is held. Today more than 150,000 attend the weekend event, making it the largest festival of its kind in the country.
1996 - LA Galaxy begins play as one of eight charter members of Major League Soccer.
1996 - The Museum of Latin American Art (MOLAA) is founded in Long Beach and serves the greater Los Angeles area. MOLAA is the only museum in the United States dedicated to modern and contemporary Latin American and Latino art.

Views of the Central Garden and Pacific Ocean at the Getty Center | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

1997 - Perched on a hilltop above Brentwood, Getty Center opens with views of the entire Los Angeles Basin. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Richard Meier designed the buildings with a façade of travertine marble - the Central Garden by Robert Irwin draws equal praise.

1998 - Hey man, The Big Lebowski is released and Jeff Bridges' The Dude becomes a pop culture icon.
1998 - The area surrounding the Downtown LA core is given the area code 323.

STAPLES Center | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

1999 - STAPLES Center opens, the new home for pro basketball and hockey teams and the beginning of a renaissance in Downtown Los Angeles.

1999 - The United States beats China in the FIFA Women's World Cup Final at Rose Bowl Stadium. Brandi Chastain celebrating her winning penalty kick has since become an iconic image of women’s athletics in the U.S. Twenty years to the day, Chastain was immortalized with a bronze statue that was unveiled outside Rose Bowl Stadium on July 10, 2019.

2000 - A section of East Hollywood is designated as America’s first and only Thai Town. So many ethnic Thais live in Los Angeles (roughly 80,000), that the city is sometimes referred to as Thailand’s 77th province.

Hollywood &amp Highland | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

2001 - The Kodak Theatre opens as the new venue for the Academy Awards ceremony (it was renamed the Dolby Theatre in 2012). Hollywood & Highland, a retail and entertainment center that also has an eye toward Hollywood history, opens next door.
2001 - Amoeba Music opens on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Occupying an entire city block, the massive store features the biggest, broadest, and most diverse collection of music and movies ever housed under one roof.

2002 - The 11-story Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels opens in Downtown LA, replacing St. Vibiana’s as the main center of worship for the archdiocese. The contemporary design by a Spanish Pritzker Prize-winning architect, José Rafael Moneo, has virtually no right angles and a plaza that evokes Old World cathedrals.

2003 - Walt Disney Concert Hall, designed by Los Angeles-based Pritzker Prize-winning architect Frank Gehry and the home of the acclaimed Los Angeles Philharmonic, opens in Downtown LA and instantly becomes an iconic architectural emblem for the city.
2003 - Home Depot Center opens in Carson. Now known as Dignity Health Sports Park, the multi-use sports complex is located on the campus of Cal State Dominguez Hills and features a soccer stadium (home pitch of the LA Galaxy), tennis stadium, track and field facility, and a world-class velodrome, the VELO Sports Center.

2005 - Antonio Villaraigosa becomes mayor of Los Angeles, the city’s first mayor of Hispanic descent since 1872. After his election, Newsweek features him on the cover with the headline “Latino Power.”

Outer Peristyle Garden at the Getty Villa | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

2006 - Following years of renovations, the Getty Museum in Pacific Palisades reopens as the Getty Villa, housing the foundation’s significant collection of Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities.

2006 - The Griffith Observatory reopens after extensive renovations, including the Leonard Nimoy Event Horizon Theater, named for the actor who played Mr. Spock on the original Star Trek series.

2006 - City population is 3,976,071. Los Angeles County population is 10,245,572 - it's by far the nation’s largest county.

Microsoft Plaza at night | Photo: L.A. LIVE

2008 - L.A. LIVE opens in Downtown LA.
2008 - The GRAMMY Museum opens to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the Grammy Awards. The museum educates visitors about the history and cultural significance of American music through exciting exhibitions, innovative programming, and cutting-edge interactives.
2008 - The Broad Contemporary Art Museum (BCAM), one of the largest collections of contemporary art in the world, opens at LACMA.

2009 - Madame Tussauds opens in Hollywood and the Annenberg Space for Photography opens in Century City.

2010 - Angels Flight reopens, connecting the historic and financial districts of Bunker Hill.
2010 - The first CicLAvia takes place. Inspired by Bogotá’s weekly ciclovía, CicLAvia temporarily closes streets to car traffic and opens them for Angelenos to use as a public park. More than 1.6 million people have experienced CicLAvia, making it the biggest open streets event in the U.S.

2011 - In Downtown LA, La Plaza de Cultura y Artes opens across from the Olvera Street marketplace, and Dinosaur Hall opens at the Natural History Museum.
2011 - The Los Angeles Philharmonic extends music director Gustavo Dudamel's contract through the end of the 2018-2019 season, the orchestra's 100-year anniversary.

The Space Shuttle Endeavour at the California Science Center | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

2012 - Transformers: The Ride-3D launches at Universal Studios Hollywood, and the Space Shuttle Endeavour goes on public display at the California Science Center.

2012 - Battleship IOWA celebrates its grand opening as a floating museum. The "Battleship of Presidents" is permanently docked at Berth 87 at the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro.

2012 - The Los Angeles Kings win the first Stanley Cup in franchise history.

2013 - Eric Garcetti becomes L.A.'s first elected Jewish mayor and its youngest in more than a century.

2013 - Several of L.A.'s cultural landmarks celebrate milestone anniversaries: Walt Disney Concert Hall (10th), Fowler Museum (50th), Hollywood Sign (90th), Natural History Museum (100th).

Yayoi Kusama, "Longing for Eternity," 2017 [detail]. Photo by Maris Hutchinson/EPW Studio. Image © Yayoi Kusama. Courtesy David Zwirner, New York Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore/Shanghai Victoria Miro, London/Venice Yayoi Kusama Inc.

2014 - Hotel openings include The Ace Hotel Downtown Los Angeles and LINE Hotel in Koreatown.
2014 - Despicable Me: Minion Mayhem opens at Universal Studios Hollywood.
2014 - Cultural milestones include the Music Center's 50th anniversary and the opening of The Broad contemporary art museum in Downtown LA.

2015 - Fast & Furious - Supercharged and The Simpsons Ride open at Universal Studios Hollywood.
2015 - Los Angeles hosts the Special Olympics World Games, the largest sports and humanitarian event in the world in 2015.

Skyslide at OUE Skyspace | Photo: Yuri Hasegawa

2016 - The Rams return to Los Angeles after a 22-year hiatus.
2016 - The Wizarding World of Harry Potter opens at Universal Studios Hollywood, OUE Skyspace opens at the US Bank Tower, and the Metro Expo Line connects Downtown LA and the Santa Monica Pier.

Presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama greets supporters at a rally at the Rancho Cienega Sports Complex in Los Angeles&nbsp| Photo: Barack Obama,&nbspFlickr

2017 - The Los Angeles City Council unanimously approves the motion to rename 3.5 miles of Rodeo Road at the Rancho Cienega Sports Complex in South L.A. as Obama Boulevard.

2017 - Grand Central Market celebrates its centennial and Angels Flight reopens.
2017 - The Marciano Foundation, backed by Guess Jeans brothers Maurice and Paul Marciano, opens a free contemporary art museum in Koreatown.

Gustavo Dudamel conducts the LA Phil | Photo: Hollywood Bowl, Facebook

2018 - The Los Angeles Philharmonic celebrates its centennial season.

2018 - Banc of California Stadium, home of the Los Angeles Football Club, opens at Exposition Park.
2018 - Bradley Cooper's remake of A Star is Born features the showstopper "Shallow," the duet with Lady Gaga and Cooper that wins the Oscar for Best Original Song.
2018 - The Venice Pride Lifeguard Tower is dedicated to Bill Rosendahl, the first openly gay man elected to the L.A. City Council.

Water drop at Jurassic World - The Ride | Photo:&nbspUniversal Studios Hollywood

2019 - Jurassic World: The Ride opens at Universal Studios Hollywood.
2019 - UCLA, Musso & Frank Grill and The Huntington Library celebrate their centennials.

2019 - The Los Angeles LGBT Center celebrates "50 Years of Queer," the Petersen Automotive Museum celebrates its 25th anniversary, and STAPLES Center celebrates its 20th anniversary.
2019 - Quentin Tarantino's "love letter to LA," Once Upon a Time in Hollywood opens to critical acclaim. It would later land 10 Oscar nominations spanning nearly every major category including Best Picture, Best Director and nods for leads Leonardo DiCaprio and Brad Pitt.

Mid-80s/Early 90s: Association with infamous criminals.

Best known as the "Night Stalker," Richard Ramirez terrorized Los Angeles from June 1984 to August 1985. During this time, the Texas native stayed at the Cecil Hotel on the 14th floor. In summer 1985, Los Angeles residents surrounded him after recognizing him from the newspapers. He was convicted of 13 counts of murder, five attempted murders and 11 sexual assaults.

Then in 1991, serial killer Jack Unterweger checked into the Cecil Hotel &mdash years after he was convicted of murder in 1976 in his native country of Austria. During his stay at the Cecil Hotel, he allegedly killed at least three sex workers. Despite receiving a life sentence, Jack was released on parole in 1990.

In 1994, the government of Austria found him guilty of nine murders, and issued a life sentence.

10 Monumental Murals of Los Angeles

With the mural ordinance going into effect this Saturday, October 12, 2013, the City of Los Angeles will call it "Mural Day," marking the end of a 11-year moratorium on murals on private property. Declarations will go on the record Friday, Councilmember José Huizar will introduce a new project in Boyle Heights, and nine artists will use utility boxes on First Street as a canvas.

It's the same week that marks the first year anniversary of the rededication of David Alfaro Siqueiros' "America Tropical," which made its debut 81 years ago.

In "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," German literary critic Walter Benjamin wrote that reproduction technique allows the function of art to be reversed from its previous themes and movements: "Instead of being based on ritual it begins to be based on another practice, politics." From 1932 to 2002, we see how Los Angeles murals made politics the new ritual for art content.

Now, just ten murals? Impossible really, and somehow there is no Olympic-era art included. By all means, disagree with the list we can make more. Send us your own suggestions in the comments box below.

And so here is a ceremonial list of Ten Monumental Murals that were created before the 2002 ban.

1: América Tropical (1932)
David Alfaro Siqueiros

On the street where the city was founded, the faded image of an indigenous figure on a cross is the symbol for ideology and process of future murals. If you are a reader here, you know the story: After nights with the city's leading artists, inspired to be selected as members of Siqueiros' "Bloc of Painters," the commissioned "América Tropical" had a civic debut on October 8, 1932, and was greeted with admiration and antipathy. The political view of imperialism in the Americas, painted with new technique of paint applied with pressured spray on experimental materials, was designed to be visible to the people it intended to reach. It fulfilled Siqueiros' manifesto that revolution is about content, technique, and presentation. It was intact only until 1938, when it was completely whitewashed. The rediscovery of the mural, and the back story of its loss, began during a time when reclaiming culture identify was a political declaration of self. "For the growing Chicano art movement, the aesthetic of Mexican muralism coexist with the most avant-grade manifestations to express the particular life experience of the urban Chicano," wrote art historian Shifra M. Goldman in 1974.

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2: The Great Wall of Los Angeles (1976-1983)
Judith Baca / Social Public Art and Resource Center

The monumental scope of Judith Baca's novelization of Los Angeles' past is fitted in a channel where water once flowed freely, and a direct descendant of the teachings of Siqueiros. As it is covered extensively here at KCET, I'll offer a simple interpretation for this list: the final panel shows a ceremonial Olympic runner, a strong female who was not just passed a torch, but ran with it, leading an indigenous plume of known and lost history of the city.

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3: Will Rogers Monument(1998)
Kent Twitchell

In Will Rogers Monument, a two-part installation on the California Theater in San Bernardino, both renditions of Rogers have the eyes of a storyteller. Why do I focus on this mural away from the city? After all, there is the dramatic eradication, and court victory supporting artist's rights, with "Ed Ruscha Monument." Or the connection of art with commuter culture with "The Freeway Lady." Twitchell doesn't directly politicize a point of view, yet this homage to a cultural icon is a reminder that murals are about Southern California, not just Los Angeles.

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4: We are not a Minority 1978
Mario Torero with El Congreso de Artistas Cosmicos de las Americas de San Diego

A list of ten SPARC murals, or a list of art in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, would be a strong representation of mural history. It is, in fact, the attempt to bring back murals on the east side of town that pushed forth action from the city to draft a mural ordinance -- once courts made a decision on litigation from media companies. One loophole was how the use of words was restricted, which made works like "We are not a Minority" more illegal to produce, once murals were banned. Like Willie Herron's "The Wall That Cracked Open," Mario Torero's used typography as an aesthetic, advancing the Chicano mural as a merging of word and image, as noted before. "We went with 'we' from 'you' to make show the (civil rights) movement is all encompassing," said Torero. The muralist has also stated he's hoping to restore the original composition of his Estrada Court landmark piece.

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5: The Wall That Speaks, Sings, and Shouts (2001)
Paul Botello

When you watch for murals, you can monitor their progress while moving around town. When they are done, not many mysteries are left. This one at Whittier Boulevard and Alma Avenue, at Ruben F. Salazar Park in East L.A., was a rare chance for me to have a pure visceral experience with a Los Angeles mural. The colors of a freshly completed work were lit by the sun during the right time of day, a year before the mural ban started, and made a stunning first sighting for me. From a distance, Botello's rich lines flag you in, and you are rewarded again when you stop to ponder the details. The title says it all.

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6: Isle of California (1972)
Victor Henderson, Terry Schoonhoven, Jim Frazin (L.A. Fine Arts Squad)

Just as "Los Tres Grandes" responded to the European mural tradition of realism and scale, Venice had a collective that did the same, while using the mandate from Mexican muralism that art belongs in the streets. The Fine Arts Squad "combined dark humor, DIY populism, sci-fi special effects and live-for-the-moment verve in ambitiously fun-loving works that captured the tenor of their times and still resonate today," wrote the Los Angeles Times in 2011. "Isle of California" is a rendition of California destruction by earthquake, now lost to the sun and no one lobbying for a restoration. A list of Venice Beach works would also also exceed a list of ten, but few would rival "Isle of California" storytelling and scale.

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7: The Negro in California History (1949)
Charles Alston and Hale Woodruff

Advocacy forced two major works to stay in Los Angeles, for now. In 1949, Golden State Mutual commissioned Charles Alston and Hale Woodruff, major Harlem Renaissance painters, to paint a set of murals for their Western Avenue and Adams Boulevard location. The set, titled "The Negro in California History," is made of Alston's "Colonization and Exploitation" and Woodruff's "Settlement and Development." In 2011 the Smithsonian offered $750,000 for the two works, but withdrew when Los Angeles art historians protested. The murals, reproduced at a much smaller scale, are the focus in the exhibition of artifacts and documents of the work at the California African American Museum. The actual murals still sit in the original building awaiting their fate. Since we had Millard Sheets scholar, Adam Arenson, list works by Sheets in June (and we have to mention Sheets was member of Siqueiros' "Bloc of Painters"), it's fitting we note how a sponsor of public art showed how public art did not have to compromised.

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8: A Glorious History, A Golden Legacy (1995)
Eliseo Art Silva

This 35' x 150 foot long mural in Historic Filipinotown speaks of the Centennial of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, while honoring Filipino-American heroes. "The design is divided into two parts. The first half is historical, leading up to the awakening of Filipino national and political consciousness. The second part is dominated by a huge bird with significant Filipino Americans on its wings, the farm workers on the bottom, and the youth and community on the right," wrote MCLA. "The mural is the first memorial to honor the 1,500 Filipino American farmworkers that ignited the 1965 Delano Grape Strike, who converged with César E. Chávez to form the UFW," says the artist, Eliseo Art Silva. To connect the theme of earth and art, a community garden was added in the lot fronting this SPARC-sponsored mural. The lot was enhanced further and on Sept. 8, 2007, dedicated as Unidad Park.

* * * *
9: Our Mighty Contribution AKA, The Crenshaw Wall, The Crenshaw Mural (1975)
Various artists

It spans along a retainer wall that sits on a city block built for driving, an ambitious use of using space to tell a neighborhood's history. Sometimes called the "Great Wall of Crenshaw," the aerosol response to the "Great Wall of Los Angeles" has some segments change out. It may all be changing. According to a Facebook page "The Crenshaw Wall Restoration Project," the community "has decided it is time to add to the wall's legacy by creating a new mural which will reflect the mood and the complexion of the community now." The project is scheduled for August of 2014.

* * * *
10: Art Saves Lives (1993) Phantom Street Artist

I close with another artist who carries the burden of political ideology manifested by a lone figure, who by choice straddles social martyrdom as he protests imperialism. In the case of The Phantom Street Artist, aka Joey Krebs, the invaders are in the form of Banksy and Shepard Fairey, exploiters of the street art tradition fueled by manipulating PR. This hints that images created by artists, and sold for profit, make retail the gallery of our time -- an elitist environment that progressive muralists wanted to ignore. Krebs isn't shy about his own PR, as he protests those street artists and other social violations as the working "spirit of our time." It may not be about race or ethnicity, but it is about class. Another thing that Krebs began with his 1993 work, which can be a starting point for street art using monumental thought, is that it connects to "América Tropical," as protest brought to a wider audience as a street experience.


By the mid-1890s, First and Spring was the center of the business district, and the Bradbury Building, opened in 1893 at Third and Broadway and still standing today, [4] was its anchor at the southwest. [5] By 1910, the area north of Fourth Street was considered the "North End" of the business district and there were already concerns about its deterioration, as the center of commerce moved to what is now known as the Historic Core, from Third to Ninth streets. [6]

The map shows the street grid in 1910, and shows in blue three important road alignment changes that came in the 1920s–1950s:

  • Spring Street realignment north of First Street to run parallel to Main Street
  • Temple Street extension eastward from Main Street
  • Creation of the US-101 Freeway and its service roads, called Arcadia and Aliso streets, but not exactly in the positions of the old Arcadia and Aliso streets.

Broadway Edit

1905 view south on Broadway from north of Temple Street. The Times Mirror printing house in foreground, marked 110 N. Broadway, now site of the Hall of Justice. Towers of the 1888 City Hall on the 200 block of S. Broadway in the distance. Fort Moore Hill, now leveled, at right.

c.1893–1900, looking east along Third St. from Olive St. on Bunker Hill. 3 buildings stand out from left to right: the 1888 City Hall (Broadway between 2nd/3rd), the Stimson Block (3rd & Spring), and the Bradbury Building (3rd & Broadway)

Temple and Broadway Edit

Cable cars of the Temple Street Cable Railway ran along Temple Street starting in 1886 and were replaced with Pacific Electric streetcars in 1902. [7] [8]

Northwest corner of Temple and Broadway Edit

  • The three-story brick Women's Christian Temperance Union building was erected in 1888 for $45,000. [9] Also known as the Temperance Temple, it has been demolished [10] and was replaced in 1957 by the Los Angeles County Central Heating and Refrigeration Plant. [11]

Southeast corner of Temple and Broadway (Pound Cake Hill, west side of New High St.) Edit

This location was at the time known as Pound Cake Hill. The buildings located here faced New High Street to their east and Broadway to their west. They were as follows: [12]

    , whose original location (1873-1887) was between New High on the west and Broadway on the east, south of Temple Street. It was moved to California and Sand streets, and in 1890 a new facility was built on Fort Moore Hill, immediately north of where Broadway today crosses the Hollywood Freeway. The Pound Cake Hill school was demolished and replaced by:
  • First, the Red Stone Courthouse (or "Red Sandstone Courthouse"), which took over the function of courthouse from the Clocktower Courthouse (also called the Temple Courthouse). Built in 1891, the edifice was a post office and a federal building. It was damaged beyond repair by Long Beach earthquake of 1933 and was torn down in 1936. [13]
  • The Los Angeles County Hall of Records was built next to (south of) the Red Sandstone Courthouse in 1911, After the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, it was determined to be unsafe and it was demolished in 1973. A new Hall of Records was built and opened in 1962, one block west on the south side of Temple between Broadway and Hill.

Currently on the site are:

  • Clara Shortridge Foltz Criminal Justice Center (Los Angeles County Grand Jury)
  • A portion of Grand Park, which stretches mid-block between Temple and First, from City Hall at Spring Street, to the Music Center at Grand Avenue.
Realignment of Spring Street (1925) Edit

The Poundcake Hill buildings originally backed up to Broadway to their west, and faced New High Street to their east. New High Street (see Sanborn map above) was a north-south street that ran parallel to Broadway, and to Spring Street to its east. As part of the construction of City Hall in the early 1920s, New High Street was removed south of Temple, and Spring Street was realigned more towards a north-south orientation, parallel with Broadway, instead of running more northeasterly and meeting Main Street at Temple Street. As a result the Poundcake Hill buildings faced the newly aligned Spring Street until they were demolished.

Southwest corner of Temple and Broadway Edit

Adjacent to the south, mid-block, is a portion of Grand Park.

First and Broadway Edit

Looking south along Broadway from First Street, 1904-5. At right, from left to right: C.H. Frost Building (#145), 141-3, the turreted Roanoke Bldg (#137-9), Newell & Gammon Bldg. (#131-5), Mason Opera House (#125-9)At left Chamber of Commerce (#128), 1888 City Hall (#228-238).

Northeast corner of First and Broadway Edit

    1886 building. This building was razed after damage from a bomb in 1910 and a new headquarters was opened on this site in 1912. The newspaper later moved further south on Spring Street to the Los Angeles Times Building, now part of Times Mirror Square, occupying the entire block between Broadway, Spring, First and Second streets. [14]

Northwest corner of First and Broadway Edit

  • Site of the Tajo Building (1896–mid-20th c.). [15] Now the location of the Los Angeles County Law Library. [citation needed]

Southeast corner of First and Broadway and east side of 100 block Edit

  • Site of the Culver Block retail and office building. [16] Now the site of the Times Mirror Square Pereira Building, built 1973.
  • South of the Culver Block was the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce building, 128–130 S. Broadway, opened February 12, 1904, [17] a landmark at the time featured on postcards and in books. 6 stories, 4 floors. Ground floor offices included those of the Los Angeles Herald and Consolidated Bank. [18]

Southwest corner of First and Broadway Edit

The southwest corner, during Victorian times the site of unremarkable retail and office buildings, was from 1958 the location of the State Office Building, (1958-60, architect Anson C. Boyd, razed 2006). It was named the Junipero Serra State Office Building, and this moniker would be transferred to the former Broadway Department Store building at 4th and Broadway when it was opened to replace this building in 1998. [19] It is now the location of the New U. S. Courthouse built in 2016, taking up the entire block between Broadway, Hill, First and Second. [20]

Just south of the southwest corner was the Mason Theatre, 127 S. Broadway. Opened in 1903 as the Mason Opera House, 1,600 seats. Benjamin Marshall of the Chicago firm Marshall & Wilson designed the building in association with John Parkinson. Marshall is known for designing the Iroquois Theatre in Chicago. Remodeled in 1924 by Meyer & Holler. Later, as the Mason Theatre, it showed Spanish-language films. Demolished 1955. [21]

145 S. Broadway, [22] site of the C. H. Frost Building, later known as the Haig M. Prince Building. Built 1898, architect John Parkinson, [23] Now the location of the New Los Angeles US Courthouse built in 2016, taking up the entire block between Broadway, Hill, First and Second. [20]

Second and Broadway Edit

Northeast corner of Second and Broadway Edit

One of several “Hellman Buildings” across Downtown L.A. — not to be confused with the still-existing Hellman Building at Fourth and Spring — was located here (#138) from 1897 to 1959. [24] The site is now a parking structure, part of the Times Mirror Square complex.

Southwest corner of Second and Broadway and the west side of the 200 block Edit

The west side of the 200 block of South Broadway was had a key place in the retail history of Los Angeles from the 1893 through 1917, as it was home to several prominent early department stores such as the Ville de Paris, Coulter's department store from 1905–1917, and J. W. Robinson's "Boston Dry Goods" store from 1895–1915. All three stores would move to Seventh Street when it became the upscale shopping street between 1915 and 1917.

  • On the southwest corner of 2nd and Broadway was Judge O'Melveny's house, built in 1870. This was replaced by the American National Bank (later California Bank) Building, which one turn was replaced by the California Building in 1911. Nos. 201-213 Broadway are now known named the Broadway Media Center.

Further south on the west side of Broadway, was 207–211, location of the:

  • YMCA Building (#207–209–211), Romanesque Revival architecture, opened in July 1889, demolished in 1903.
    • The YMCA operated here at #207 from 1889 until 1903,
    • City of London opened here in August 1891, run by Messrs. Hiles and Niccolls, who came from the City of Paris department store. It carried curtains, window shades, comforters, and the like. [25] It operated here until August 1895, when it moved next door to the Potomac Block at #213. [26]

    The YMCA Building was demolished to make way for the:

    Coulter's complex: Potomac and Bicknell blocks Edit

    The adjacent Potomac Block and Bicknell Block originally housed prominent retailers of the day, then were joined together in 1906 by Coulter's department store to form a complex, opening it as a new, 157,000 sq ft (14,600 m 2 ) store in June, 1905. [28] [29] [30]

    Potomac Block Edit

    The Potomac Block, 213–223 S. Broadway, was from 1905–1917 known as the B. F. Coulter Building. It was originally developed by lumberyard and mill owner J. M. Griffith. It was designed in 1888 by Block, Curlett and Eisen in Romanesque architectural style [31] and opened on July 17, 1890. [32]

      (at 221–223, from 1893 through 1906), [31]
  • City of London Dry Goods Co., which moved here from next door at #211 in August 1895 and advertised for this location through August 1899. [26]
  • It was the first time major retail stores opened on South Broadway, in what would be a shift of the upmarket shopping district from 1890 to 1905 from around First and Spring to South Broadway. In 1904, Coulter's bought the Potomac Block, and combined it with the Bicknell block to create its new store that opened in 1905.

    • 215 continued as a branch of Coulter's through 1927. Then, 215-217 was home to the Pacific Furniture House in the 1940s.
    • 219 housed Fisch's Department Store in the 1940s.

    The building was demolished in 1953 and is still the site of a parking lot. [33]

    Bicknell Block Edit

    The Bicknell Block (or Bicknell Building) at 225–229 S. Broadway, with back entrances at 224–228 S. Hill Street. was part of Coulter's from 1905 from 1917. After Coulter's moved in 1917, it housed the Western Shoe Co. (through 1922), later known as the Western Department Store (1922-1928). Lettering covered the face of the building from top to bottom through the end of the 1950s: "THE LARGEST SHOE DEPT. IN THE WEST". [34]

    Further south on Broadway Edit
    • 231-235, the Harris Newmark Building (1899, Abram Edelman), Bartlett Music Co. (#233), annex to J. W. Robinson's (#235) Goodwill Industries store (#233-235, 1950s-60s). The building still stands, but all floors except the ground floor have been removed.
    • 237-241, the Boston Dry Goods Building (completed 1895, demolished, architects Theodore Eisen and Sumner Hunt, designer of the Bradbury Building) [35][36] The building was home to J. W. Robinson's "Boston Dry Goods" store from 1895–1915, Scott's Department Store (239–241, 1920s), Third Street Store (237-241, 1950s-60s). Demolished, currently the site of a parking lot.
    • 251 was home to the I. Magninspeciality department store, which opened here on January 2, 1899 [37] starting 1904, I. Magnin announced that the store would be known by the name of its manager, Myer Siegel. [38]

    Southeast corner and east side of Broadway from 2nd to 3rd Edit

    Looking north along Broadway at its east side past 2nd Street. From top left: The L.A. Times Bldg. with castle-like turret, with the 1911 Hall of Records behind it. The Chamber of Commerce Bldg. at #128. Drugstore in the Hellman Bldg. (#144–6) at the NE corner of 2nd Street. Dentist in the Nolan, Smith and Bridge Bldg. (#200–4) at the SE corner of 2nd. New King Hotel in the Gordon Bldg. (#206–10). Victor Clothing in its location from 1926–1964 in the Crocker Bldg. (#212–6). Pig 'n Whistle in the Copp Bldg. (#218–224). 1888 City Hall at far right.

    The southeast corner of 2nd and Broadway was the site of

    • The First Presbyterian Church was located here in 1894. [39] The church was replaced sometime before 1906 by the:
    • Nolan, Smith and Bridge Building, #200-4 S. Broadway, stores and a restaurant. [40]
    • Now the corner is the site of the Historic Broadway underground light rail station, under construction.
    • Crocker Building, #212–6 [41] Home to Victor Clothing from 1920–1964.
    • B'nai B'rith Temple (1873), 214 S. Broadway (post-1890 numbering), the city's first synagogue, razed to make way for the Copp Building, 218–224 S. Broadway, home to the original (1908) Pig 'n Whistle candy shop and tea room. [42] The Pig 'n Whistle would open locations at 7th and Broadway and in Hollywood, where it would become a landmark restaurant that still operates today.
    • City Hall (1888–1928 opened 1888, demolished 1929 228–238 S. Broadway, architect Solomon Irmscher Haas, Romanesque Revival). Now a parking lot. Three stories, it had a 150-foot (46 m) campanile. Red and brown brick. Housed the Los Angeles Public Library for a time until it moved to the new Hamburger's department store building at Eighth and Broadway in 1908. [43] The site is now part of the "(213) S. Spring" parking garage. [4]
    • #240-246 the Hosfield Building, location of the Natatorium (indoor swimming pool) in 1894 and the Imperial Restaurant in 1906. [41] After 1964, location of Victor Clothing, notable for its changing murals reflecting local Chicano culture. Victor Clothing operated here until 2001, and was known i.a. for its frequent ads on Spanish-language television. [44]

    Third and Broadway Edit

    Northwest corner of Third and Broadway Edit

    Pan American Lofts (built 1895)

    The corner is home to one of the oldest buildings outside the Plaza area, the 1895 Irvine Byrne Block or Byrne Block now called the Pan American Lofts. The architect was Sumner Hunt. It was built in a hybrid Spanish Colonial Revival/Beaux-Arts style.

    The building was home to the renowned I. Magnin clothing store that opened here on January 2, 1899 [45] on June 19, 1904, I. Magnin announced that the Los Angeles store would henceforth be known as Myer Siegel. [38] After a fire at the Irvine Byrne Building destroyed its store on February 16, 1911, Myer Siegel moved further south on Broadway.

    It was modernized and converted to lofts in 2007 and given its present name. The halls and staircase have appeared in many of Alfred Hitchcock's movies, Brad Pitt's "Se7en", "Fight Club","Blade Runner", and other tv shows and commercials. [46]

    From Third Street south to Olympic Blvd. (originally Tenth St.), and from Hill Street east to Los Angeles Street, including Broadway, is the Historic Core district, the city's main commercial and entertainment area in the first half of the 20th century.

    Northeast corner of Third and Broadway Edit

    East side of Broadway looking south past 3rd St, c.1903-4. From left to right 1888 City Hall (with flag), Rindge Block at NE corner of 3rd, Bradbury Building

    East side of Broadway looking north past 3rd St, c.1888. From left to right 1888 City Hall (with flag), Rindge Block at NE corner of 3rd, Bradbury Building

    • Originally the J. C. Graves house stood here Graves bought the property in 1879 for $2,250. The house was sold and removed to 10th and Hope streets in 1888.
    • Rindge Block (1898, sold in 1899 for $190,000 to Frederick H. Rindge, the "King of Malibu"), 248–260 S. Broadway, commercial building the top floors were removed and only the ground floor remains.

    Southwest corner of Third and Broadway Edit

      , (1917-8, architects Albert C. Martin and William Lee Woollett, Spanish Baroque Revival style, 2,345 seats), 307 S. Broadway. It is the northernmost of the movie palaces that comprise the Broadway Theater District and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. [48] Built by Sid Grauman who would later open Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. The theater was designed by architects with a fanciful facade in the Churrigueresque style. After more than 30 years as one of the city's most prestigious first-run movie palaces, the Million Dollar Theater presented Spanish-language films and variety shows from 1950 until the late 1980s. The theater had a seating capacity of 2,345 when it opened in 1918. [49] In 1925, Ben-Hur played for six months at the Million Dollar Theater. [citation needed]

    Southeast corner of Third and Broadway Edit

    View from Bunker Hill to Bradbury Building and the Stimson Block at 3rd & Spring. The Pan American Lofts had not yet been built on the NW corner of 3rd & Broadway. Around 1894-5.

    Bradbury Building in 1894, then anchoring the southwestern end of the business district [5]

    Bradbury Building in 1960

    Bradbury Building exterior, 2005

    Atrium of the Bradbury Building

      (1893, architects Sumner Hunt and George Wyman, Italian Renaissance Revival, Romanesque Revival, and Chicago School styles), the oldest remaining commercial building in Downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles Conservancy calls it an icon and a "unique treasure". Commissioned by gold-mining and real estate millionaire Lewis Bradbury. It is famous for its light-filled atrium, open cage elevators, marble stairways and ornate iron railings, and has appeared in many films including Blade Runner. [49]

    Spring Street Edit

    Gallery Edit

    West side of Spring south of Temple Edit

    Along the west side of Spring Street were the following buildings. Spring was realigned in the 1920s and now runs west of these sites, and the sites where these buildings once stood are now part of the full city block on which City Hall stands:

    • At the southwest corner of Spring and Temple was the Allen Block, between 1883 and 1894 location of Harris & Frank's London Clothing Co., with its landmark clock. The first J. W. Robinson'sBoston Dry Goods store was also located in this block from 1883–1886 before moving to the Jones Block slightly south. [50] The Allen Block was replaced by the International Savings & Exchange Bank Building (10 floors, 1907, H. Alban Reaves, Renaissance Revival and Italianate, demolished 1954-5) [51] ), southwest corner of Temple and Spring. A replica of its façade featured in the Harold Lloyd film Safety Last!, in a famous scene where Lloyd hangs off a clock near the building's roof. In its later years it housed city health offices and was called the "Old City Health Building". [51] department store, 203–7 N. Spring, west side between Temple and the Phillips Block. Spring Street now runs west of this site, which is part of City Hall.
    • Jones Block, pre-1890 numbering 71–73 and 77–79–101–103 N. Spring [52] post-1890 numbering 171–173–175–177–179–201 N. Spring St., [53] home to:
      • Los Angeles Herald steam printing plant until 1888 [52]
      • Preuss & Pironi drugstore c.1885-6 [54] Boston Dry Goods at #171–173 from 1886 to 1895. Robinson's would become a major department store chain across Southern California. department store at #177 during its final few years of operation, c.1895–1897. [55] even as
      Phillips Block Edit

      At the northwest corner of Franklin and Spring stood two buildings in succession, the Rocha Adobe, then the Phillips Block. The site now lies under the current course of Spring Street, which was straightened, i.e. realigned to run further west, in the 1920s.

      • The Rocha Adobe (built 1820 as a residence for Antous Jose Rocha), 31–33 Spring Street (pre-1890 numbering), which from 1853–1884 served as the City Hall, and a building in the yard behind it served as the city and county jail. [56] It was demolished and in its place was built:
      • Phillips Block (four-and-a-half stories, opened in 1888, Burgess J. Reeve, French Renaissance Revival architecture), 25–37 N. Spring St. (pre-1890 numbering) at the northwest corner of Franklin St., backing up to New High Street to the west. Owned by Pomona Valley rancher Louis Phillips, it cost $260,000. There was 120 feet (37 m) of frontage on Spring Street, 218 feet (66 m) on Franklin, and 121 feet (37 m) along New High Street. This building was the second four-story structure in Los Angeles. It was sometimes called Phillips Block No. 1 (there was a "Phillips Block No. 2" at 135–145 Los Angeles Street, on the west side between Market and First streets). [57] In July 1888, Asher Hamburger opened the Peoples Store here, later known as Hamburger's it became the largest retail store in the Western United States. In 1908 it moved to 8th and Broadway, and in 1923 Hamburger sold it to May Co. and it became May Company California. [58] The Phillips Block was demolished in the mid-1920s to make way for the realigned Spring Street and today's City Hall.
      Franklin to First Edit

      At the southwest corner of Franklin Street from 1894–1905 was Harris & Frank's London Clothing Co. with its landmark clock. [59] [60] Harris & Frank went on to become a chain of junior department stores for men's clothing across the region.

      East side of Spring south of Temple Edit

      Temple Block Edit

      The triangular space where Spring and Main Streets came together at the south side of Temple Street was the site of Temple Block: actually a collection of different structures that occupied the block bounded by Spring, Main and Temple. The first or Old Temple Block built by Francisco (F. P. F.) Temple in 1856, was of adobe, two stories, facing north to Temple. This was incorporated into a later, expanded Temple Block in 1871, and then demolished. George P. McLain wrote that upon his arrival in the town in 1868, Temple Block had been the undisputed center of commerce and social life in the town. Even into the early 1880s, it was considered the city's most stately building. It housed many law offices, including those of Stephen M. White, Will D. Gould and Glassell, Chapman and Smith. [61] The block had a key role in the retail history of Los Angeles, as it was the first home to several upscale retailers who would become big names in the city: Desmond's (1870–1882) [62] and Jacoby Bros. (1879–1891). [63] It was also home to the Odd Fellows, the Fashion Saloon, the Temple and Workman Bank, Slotterbeck's gun shop, the Wells Fargo office. The northeast corner was home to Adolph Portugal's dry goods store (1874-1879?), Jacoby Bros. (1879–1891) and Cohn Bros. (1892–1897), in succession. [64] [65]

      In 1925-7 this block and other surrounding areas were demolished to make way for the current Los Angeles City Hall.

      Along the south side of Temple Block was Market Street, a small street running between Spring and Main.

      Clocktower Courthouse/Bullard Block Edit

      Taking up the small block immediately south of Temple Block between Market and Court streets, facing both Spring and Main streets, were two buildings in succession:

        • Clock Tower Courthouse: Just south of Temple Block across tiny Market Street was a building known by many names including Temple Courthouse, Temple Market, Temple Theater, Old County Courthouse, etc. Also built by John Temple, in 1858, originally as a market (ground floor) and theater (upper floor). Demolished 1890s. [66][67] Served as a market and retail as well as the County Courthouse 1861-1891 until the Red Sand Courthouse was finished. [68] Topped by a rectangular tower with a clock on all four sides. [69][70] The Clock Tower Courthouse was demolished in 1895 and replaced by:
        • Bullard Block, built in 1895-6, architects Morgan & Walls, [71] 154–160 N. Spring, NE corner of Court Street. Replaced the Clocktower Courthouse. Housed The Hub, a large department store for apparel. See also the photo below of "La Fiesta". Demolished 1925-6 to make way for current Los Angeles City Hall. [72]
        Court south to First Edit
        • Court Street, a small street running between Spring and Main. At 12-14-16 Court Street (pre-1890 numbering). 112–116 Court St. (post 1890 numbering) was the Tivoli Theatre which opened and closed in 1890, lasting less than a year. From 1891 through 1902, the venue was the (New) Vienna Buffet, a restaurant with live music where scandal occurred, and gatherings of gay men including what were then called "she boys". [73] Then from 1902–c.1910, the site was the Cineograph Theatre, a vaudeville venue. From 1918–1925 it was marked the Chinese Theatre with the Sun Jung Wah Co. performing Chinese plays. [74] grocers were located at 38–40 (after 1890: 136-138) N. Spring (the older "Wilcox Block", also known as the Strelitz Block) from 1890-1896 before moving to the Wilcox Building when it opened at 2nd and Spring. [75][76] dry goods store was located at 128–134 N. Spring St. from 1891-1900, and added the Jevne premises in 1896 (thus encompassing all of 128 through 138 N. Spring). The store moved to Broadway south of 3rd St. in 1900, [77][78] another signal that the upscale shopping district was moving southwest away from this area at that time.

        First and Spring Edit

        The image at above left looks south past the intersection of First and Spring sometime around 1900–1906. The spire of the Wilson Block is prominent on the left, as is the Nadeau Hotel on the right. In the foreground we can see the Los Angeles National Bank to the left and the Larronde Block to the right. From First to Second streets, Spring Street is still a busy shopping district, though Broadway is also just becoming popular for more upscale shopping. An electric streetcar heads to Griffin Avenue in Montecito Heights, on what would become Line 2 of the Los Angeles Railway. Today, this view would be of the 2009 LAPD Headquarters taking up the entire block on the left and on the right, the 1935 Los Angeles Times Building, and behind it, the 1948 Crawford Mirror Addition building.

        Northwest corner of First and Spring Edit

          Larronde Block, built in 1882 at a cost of $10,000, [80] 211 W. 1st St., also 101–105 N. Spring, two stories, [79] offices and retail shops, including:
            , a major clothing store, 101–105 N. Spring, [81] from its founding in 1889 through 1910. [82]

          Northeast corner of First and Spring Edit

          North side of First Street between Spring and Main streets. Widney Block. c.1888

          • Los Angeles National Bank Building (1887-1906), demolished and replaced by the
          • Equitable Building (Equitable Savings Bank, 1906-1920s) [84]

          First Street from Spring to Main Edit

          First Street east of Spring: Widney Block (i.e. Joseph Widney), built in 1883, along the north side. The main Olmsted & Wales bookstore was located in the block in the mid-1880s.

          Southwest corner of First and Spring Edit

          • Nadeau Block or Nadeau Hotel, built 1881-2, demolished 1932, designed by architects Kysor & Morgan, located at the southwest corner of Spring and First streets. It was the first four-story building in the city. [85]
          • This corner is now the site of the Los Angeles Times Building, opened 1935, part of the Times Mirror Square complex taking up the entire block between Spring, Broadway, First and Second streets, formerly the headquarters of the Los Angeles Times, currently vacant.

          Southeast corner of First and Spring Edit

          Four buildings have stood here in succession:

          • The George S. Wilson homestead [86]
          • Wilson Block, sometimes called the city's first skyscraper. [87] Built 1886-8. Demolished around 1927. [88] The corner is now occupied by the Los Angeles Police Department Headquarters Building, completed in 2009. [89] The site is now home to:
          • A replacement two-story retail building, [87] home to the "Equitable" branch of Security Pacific National Bank, then the Security Trust and Savings Bank. (the Equitable Building was across the street to the north). [90]
          • Since 2009, the Police Headquarters Building taking up the entire block between First, Second, Spring and Main streets.

          Second and Spring Edit

          Northwest corner of Second and Spring Edit

          • The Bryson Block, also known as the Bryson-Bonebrake Block or Bryson Bonebrake Building, northwest corner 2nd and Spring, constructed 1886-1888 for $224,000 on the site of a public school and an early city hall, as a 126-room bank and office building. Romanesque architecture. Two stories added 1902-1904. Demolished 1934. Architect Joseph Cather Newsom (Newsom & Newsom). Pacific Coast Architecture Database states it was "nothing short of amazing, displaying a riotous and eclectic amalgam of features". Built for mayor John Bryson and Major George H. Bonebrake, President of the Los Angeles National Bank and the State Loan & Trust Co. [91]Desmond's department store was located here from 1890 to 1900. [62]

          It was replaced by the 1948 Crawford Addition building, part of the Times Mirror Square complex, currently vacant.

          Northeast corner of Second and Spring Edit

          • Burdick Block, a.k.a. the Trust Building, 127 W. 2nd St., 1888 (Jasper Newton Preston), top stories added 1900 (John Parkinson). In 1910, refitted and rechristened the American Bank Building. Now site of the Los Angeles Police Department Headquarters which occupies the entire block from First to Second and from Spring to Main, completed 2009. [92][93]

          Southwest corner of Second and Spring Edit

          View west on 2nd at Spring. Hollenbeck Block (left) when it was only two stories, note Coulter's store 2nd City Hall (right), 1886

          View south on Spring at 2nd, Hollenbeck Block when it was two stories, Coulter's store, 1886

          • The Hollenbeck Block was located on the southwest corner of Spring and Second streets. It was built in 1884 by John Edward Hollenbeck and housed the Hollenbeck Hotel and, on the corner, from 1884–1898, Coulter's 6,000 sq ft (560 m 2 ) store, which would become a leading Los Angeles department store. Built 1884, demolished in 1933. Architect Robert Brown Young. [94] Currently the construction site of Historic Broadway station, an underground station of the Los Angeles Metro Rail light rail subway.

          Southeast corner of Second and Spring Edit

          • Wilcox Building, built 1895-6, architects Pissis and Moore, five stories. All but the ground floor were removed in 1971 after damage from the 1971 Sylmar earthquake. It housed the larger of two branches of the H. Jevne & Co. gourmet grocery store, as well as the California Club until 1904, when the latter moved to Fourth and Hill streets. The Southwestern School of Law was on its top floors 1915–1924. [95]

          200 block Edit

          Music (Turnverein) Hall (l) and Los Angeles (Lyceum) Theatre (r). West side of Spring between 2nd and 3rd, 1895.

          Looking north on Spring from 3rd St., 1905

          Looking south on Spring between 2nd and 3rd, c.1905. In the background at center: towers of the Hotel Ramona. To its right, the Douglas Building, Woollacott Block, Anheuser restaurant, Hamilton Bros. shoe store block, and portion of the Turnverein Hall

          Parmelee-Dohrmann store at the Workman Block, 232–234 S. Spring, photo c.1900-1906

          • #217 (pre-1890 numbering: #119), the Parisian Cloak and Suit Co., 1888–1892 then 221 S. Spring until 1899. One of the city's prominent retailers of women's clothing during that era.

          Two theatres together called the Perry Buildings:

          • at #225–9 was the Lyceum Theatre, opened in 1888 as the Los Angeles Theatre (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Theatre on Broadway, still standing). From 1903-1911 this venue operated as the Orpheum Theatre. As the Orpheum Circuit was a chain and changed venues several times, the "Orpheum Theatre" in Los Angeles was first at the Grand Opera House venue on Main Street, then at this venue, and finally at the venue now known as the Palace Theatre on Broadway. [96]
          • at #231–5 was the Turnverein Hall (opened 1879), a theatre, renamed the Music Hall in 1894, Elks Hall in the early 1900s and Lyceum Hall in 1915. Demolished. [97]
          • #237–241, Hamilton Bros. block, Hamilton Bros. shoe store at #239. [98]
          • #243, Anheuser-Busch saloon, later known as The Anheuser Restaurant. [99]
          • #245–7, Woollacott Block[98]
          • Stowell Block at #224–228. In 1894 the Los Angeles Athletic Club was located here from 1893 until 1895. [100][101]
          • Workman Block at #230–234. 232–234 were home to Parmelee-Dohrmann from 1899 through 1906. It was the city's premier store for china, crystal and silver, as well as — at that time — selling appliances like stoves and refrigerators. In 1906, the store moved to the 5th and Broadway area. [102]

          Third and Spring Edit

          1903, looking west on Third past Spring: Desmond's store located 1900–1906 in the turreted Ramona Block on the SW corner, left, and Southern Pacific Railroad office in the Douglas Building, still standing today, on the NW corner, right. At far background, Angel's Flight at 3rd and Hill.

          Douglas Building (1899– ), NW corner

          Metropolitan Barber Shop, 215 W. 3rd (demolished)

          Stimson Block, NE corner (1893–1963)

          Stimson Block in the mid-20th century

          Hotel Ramona, SW corner (1885–1903)

          Washington Bldg. (1912) at SW corner

          Lankershim Building (1896–1959), SE corner

          Ronald Reagan State Office Bldg. occupies the SE corner of 3rd & Spring today. Spring runs along its right side this view looks south on Main St.

          Northwest corner of Third and Spring Edit

          • Hammel and Denker Block (opened 1890, demolished 1899) [103]Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker were business partners in hotels and ranching. Thomas Douglas Stimson bought it in 1893, thus owning two buildings at this intersection: this one and the Stimson Block (see below). Leading dry goods retailer Frank, Grey & Co. opened here in 1890 [104] and the store was later taken bought by, and turned into a branch of J. M. Hale. [105]
          • The Hammel & Denker Block was demolished and replaced by the Douglas Block in 1899 and still standing, now condos. [106]
          • To the west of the Douglas Block stood the Metropolitan Barber Shop, originally at 214 W. 3rd, in 1908 it moved to 215-9 W. 3rd. The Los Angeles Herald claimed it to be the largest barber shop in the world at that time and the most expensive ever constructed, with 30 chairs, chandeliers and mahogany furnishings. [107]

          Northeast corner of Third and Spring Edit

          • Stimson Block or Stimson Building, built 1893, architect Carroll H. Brown (also designed the Stimson House), demolished 1963. The city's tallest building when it opened. Built for lumber magnate Thomas Douglas Stimson. Now site of a parking lot. [108]

          Southwest corner of Third and Spring Edit

          • The Callaghan Block or Ramona Block housing the Hotel Ramona, (1885, Burgess J. Reeve, classic bay-windowed style). [109] Demolished in 1903 and replaced by the Washington Building, built 1912, Parkinson and Bergstrom, still standing. [110][111]

          Southeast corner of Third and Spring Edit

          • Site of the Lankershim Building (1896-7, Robert Brown Young, demolished 1959). [112] Now the site of the Ronald Reagan State Building.

          Main Street Edit

          Main Street looking north from Temple, photo by T.E. Stanton, 1886. The Baker Block is the prominent building towards the back. Left side: Cosmopolitan Hotel, Farmers and Merchants Bank , Downey Block with Commercial Restaurant.

          Main from Plaza south to Arcadia Edit

          Gallery (west side) Edit

          Sentous Block a.k.a Sentous Building, 1920

          Gallery (east side) Edit

          Pico House and the Plaza in 1876, photo taken from Fort Moore

          Pico House, Merced Theater and Masonic Hall

          Pico House Edit

          Pico House was a luxury hotel built in 1870 by Pío Pico, a successful businessman who was the last Mexican Governor of Alta California. With indoor plumbing, gas-lit chandeliers, a grand double staircase, lace curtains, and a French restaurant, the Italianate three-story, 33-room hotel was the most elegant hotel in Southern California. It had a total of nearly eighty rooms. The Pico House is listed as a California Historical Landmark (No. 159).

          Masonic Hall Edit

          Masonic Hall at 416 N. Main St., was built in 1858 as Lodge 42 of the Free and Accepted Masons. The building was a painted brick structure with a symbolic "Masonic eye" below the parapet. In 1868, the Masons moved to larger quarters further south. Afterward, the building was used for many purposes, including a pawn shop and boarding house. It is the oldest building in Los Angeles south of the Plaza.

          Merced Theater Edit

          The Merced Theater, completed in 1870, was built in an Italianate style and operated as a live theatre from 1871 to 1876. When the Woods Opera House opened nearby in 1876, the Merced ceased being the city's leading theatre. [113] Eventually, it gained an "unenviable reputation" because of "the disreputable dances staged there, and was finally closed by the authorities." [114]

          Plaza House Edit

          This two-story building at 507–511 N. Main St. houses part of the LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes, which includes the Vickrey -Brunswig Building next door. [115] It is inscribed on its upper floor, and on 1890s maps it is marked, "Garnier Block" (not to be confused with the Garnier Block/Building on Los Angeles Street, one block away). Commissioned in 1883 by Philippe Garnier, once housed the "La Esperanza" bakery. [116]

          Vickrey-Brunswig Building Edit

          This five-story brick building facing the Plaza at 501 N. Main St. houses LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes, which also occupies the Plaza House next door. It was built in 1888 and combines Italianate and Victorian architecture the architect was Robert Brown Young. [117]

          Site of Sentous Building Edit

          The Sentous Block or Sentous Building (19th c., demolished late 1950s) was located at 615-9 N Main St., with a back entrance on 616-620 North Spring St. (previously called Upper Main St., then San Fernando St.). Designed in 1886 by Burgess J. Reeve. Louis Sentous was a French pioneer in the early days of Los Angeles. [118] The San Fernando Theatre was located here. The site is now part of the El Pueblo parking lot. [119] [120]

          West side of Main from Republic south to Temple Edit

          This block is part of the site of the current Spring Street Courthouse. Buildings previously located here include:

          • Lafayette Hotel, 343 N. Main, opened in the 1850s, c. 1882 renamed the Cosmopolitan Hotel, then the St. Elmo Hotel. [121] Razed in 1933. [122] location from 1874 through 1883, after leaving their original quarters in the Pico Building. Architect Ezra F. Kysor. [123][124]

          Northwest corner of Temple and Main Edit

          The 1940 Spring Street Courthouse, NW corner Temple/Main, 2008

          On this corner stood four buildings in succession, the first two of which had a key role in the history of retail in Southern California, as it was home to a number of upscale retailers who would later grow to be big names in the city, and some, regional chains.

          • Old Downey Block (?-1871), northwest corner of Temple and Main, Replaced by the Downey Block (1871-1910). Retailers that got their start here included Harris & Jacoby, [125][126] forerunners to the Harris & Frank clothing chain and the large Jacoby Bros. department store and M. Kremer, [127] forerunner of the Los Angeles City of Paris.
          • Downey Block (1871–1910), replaced by the New Post Office in 1910. Retailers who were located here included Coulter's (1878-9), [128]Jacoby Bros. (1878-9), [129] and Quincy Hall (1876–1882),<ref. "Advertisement by L. Harris/Quincy Hall". Los Angeles Herald. October 24, 1879. p. 2 . Retrieved 6 May 2019 . </ref> forerunner of Harris & Frank.
          • New Post Office also known as the Federal Building (1910–1937). Razed in 1937 and replaced by a new Federal Building now known as the Spring Street Courthouse, opened in 1940. [130] , opened in 1940. [130]

          East side of Main from Arcadia south to Commercial Edit

          Baker Block Edit

          • Baker Block, 334–348** N. Main at the southeast corner of Arcadia Street, opened late 1878, Second Empire architecture. The Baker Block was erected on the site of Don Abel Stearns' adobe mansion also called El Palacio, built in 1835-1838 and demolished in August and September of 1877 [131] Col. Robert S. Baker who had the Baker Block built, had married Stearns' widow, Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker. When built, it was called the "finest emporium of commerce south of San Francisco". The ground floor housed retail tenants such as Coulter's (1879–1884), George D. Rowan and Eugene Germain. The second floor was offices, and the third floor held the city's most upscale apartments. In 1919, Goodwill Industries bought the building and opened its store and operations. That is not to say though, that nobody fought to save the building. The Metropolitan Garden Association tried to move the Baker Block to another location for use as a public recreation center, while city councilman Arthur E. Briggs raised funds to convert the building into a city history museum. Nonetheless, in 1941, Goodwill sold the building to the city, which demolished it in 1942. Currently, the US 101 freeway, and the new, more southerly route of Arcadia Street, run over most of the site. [132]

          South of Baker Block Edit

          South of the Baker Block stood buildings that are now the site of the northwestern-most part of the Los Angeles Mall:

          • Downey Building (not to be confused with the "Downey Block"), 324–330** N. Main, opened 1878, three stories, captured in a 1957 color photo standing alone as the last building on the block, demolished that year. [133] In the 1930s photo above, it is home to the Librería Española.
          • Grand Central Hotel, opened 1876, demolished.
          • Pico Building, 318-322** N. Main, opened 1867, the city’s first bank building, to house the new Hellman, Temple & Co. bank, then in 1871 the first location of Hellman’s own bank Farmers and Merchants Bank of Los Angeles, forerunner of Security Pacific National Bank. Later tenants included the Los Angeles County Bank (1874-1878), Charles H. Bush, jeweler and watchmaker (1878-1905), Louis E. Pearlson’s jewelry, loan and pawnshop (from 1905), as well as several barber shops and then a succession of owner-operated restaurants. The last occupants were a jewelers and the Mexican restaurant Arizona Cafe #2. Demolished 1957 to make way for a parking lot. [134] , later the St. Charles Hotel, 314–316** N. Main. Opened 1835, demolished 1940. Home to the Azteca Cafe in the 1930s.
          • 312 N. Main, two stories, home to a saloon in the mid-1890s
          • 306–308 N. Main, three stories, home to offices (at #308) and Bright's Cheap Store (#306) in 1882. [135]
          • Ducommun Block or Ducommun Building, 300-2-4** N. Main (200-2-4* N. Main). In the 1880s, home to the Ducommun hardware store, a furniture store and Prager Dry Goods. In the early 20th century, site of the Security Pacific National Bank. [136] Home to the Federal Theatre from c. 1913–1917. [137]

          The Los Angeles Mall replaced these blocks it is a small shopping center at the Los Angeles Civic Center, between Main and Los Angeles Streets on the north and south sides of Temple Street, connected by both a pedestrian bridge and a tunnel. It features Joseph Young's sculpture Triforium, with 1,500 blown-glass prisms synchronized to an electronic glass bell carillon. The mall opened in 1974 and includes a four-level parking garage with 2,400 spaces.

          East side of Main from Commercial south to First Edit

          The 1888 New Lanfranco Block, early 1920s

          Main and Requena: United States Hotel right, Victorian 200–202 N. Main at left (Southern Pacific ticket office in 1888)

          Triforium sculpture at the Los Angeles Mall just N of the NE corner of 1st/Temple, 2018.

          Currently, this site is the southernmost end of the Los Angeles Mall Triforium is approximately on the site of Commercial Street. [138]

          • #240 Farmers and Merchants Bank was located here in 1896 [138]
          • #236 Los Angeles Savings Bank was located here in 1896 [138]
          • #226-8 Commercial Bank, renamed First National Bank in 1880, was located here in 1896. [139] First National Bank was located here in 1896. [138]
          • #214–222 (pre-1890 numbering: 74): New Lanfranco Block, built 1888, architects Curlett, Eisen & Cuthbertson[140] Site of the Old Lanfranco Block, demolished in 1888. [141][138]
          • #200–202 (NE corner of Requena) Southern Pacific ticket office as of 1888-9 [142]
          • #158–172: United States Hotel, southeast corner of Main and Requena St. (a.k.a. Market St.). Built 1861-2, demolished 1939. When built it was one of three hotels in the city, alongside the Bella Union and the Lafayette Hotel. It was ornate and Italianate in style, with a “profusion of brackets, corbel tables and oriel windows. On one end, a tower with a mansard roof lit by l'oeil de boeuf windows, poked up another story to signal the hotel's location to travelers.” [143] Today, location of the south plaza of the Los Angeles Mall.

          West side of Main from Temple south to First Edit

          Illich's Restaurant ad from March 1890

          This block is, since 1928, the site of Los Angeles City Hall

          • Before 1926, Spring Street and Main Street met at Temple Street. From Temple, Main and Spring streets proceeded south Spring at a more southwesterly angle. This created a narrow triangle with the triangle's northern point at Temple. Proceeding south along Main on the right-hand side one would pass the east side of Temple Block.
          • Junction with Market Street until demolished in 1895, or the Bullard Block built in its place after 1895.
          • Junction with Court Street
          • Illich's Restaurant and Oyster Parlors, 41–43 (pre-1890 numbering) 145–7 (post-1890) N. Main St.. Starting in the 1870s as a small chophouse, Illich's grew to be the largest restaurant in the city. Owner Jerry Illich was born in Dalmatia. He was connected with the Maison Doree restaurant at 4th and Main and later opened his own restaurant in 1896 on west 2nd Street between Broadway and Hill. [144] .

          East side of Main from First to Second Edit

          • Grand Opera House (1884, demolished 1936, capacity c.1,300–1,800), 110 S. Main, in later years known as the Orpheum (Dec. 1894–Sep. 1903), Clune's Grand (c.1912), The Grand (c.1920s), and Teatro México (1930s). (The Orpheum Circuit (circuit meaning "chain") moved the Orpheum name to a different venue in 1903 at 227 S. Spring, and again in 1911 to what is now the Palace Theatre). This theater was the site of the first commercial showing of motion pictures in the city, when on July 6, 1896, several films from the Edison Studios were projected by Billy Porter, who would later become a famous silent film director. Appeared in the film in Busby Berkeley's Bright Lights (1st National/Warner Bros, 1935). Demolished in 1936 to make way for a parking lot. [145]
          • Forster Block, 122–128 S. Main St. (post-1890 numbering), 22–28 S. Main St. (per-1890 numbering), was a two-story building built in the early 1880s, five doors south of the Grand Opera House. It housed a coffee house of the Women's Christian Temperance Union at #26, heavily damaged in an 1885 fire, and a saddlery. [146]

          Third from Spring to Main, Third and Main Edit

          On the corner of Third and Main: [147]

          • Wells Fargo and Co. offices, northwest corner of 3rd/Main as of 1894
          • The Thom Block, southeast corner of Mayo/Third and Main as of 1894
          • Schwartz Block and Jackson House, southwest corner of 3rd/Main as of 1894

          Buildings along Los Angeles Street Edit

          Old Chinatown stretched from Sanchez Street across Los Angeles Street to what is now Union Station. c.1885.

          Northern end of Los Angeles Street Edit

          The Colonel Adobe was demolished in 1888 and 1896 Sanborn maps show that the Del Valle adobe had been removed, and Los Angeles Street had been extended [148] to form the eastern edge of the Plaza, thus passing in front of the Lugo Adobe. Calle de los Negros remained for a few more decades, behind a row of houses lining the east side of Los Angeles Street between Arcadia and Aliso streets. This was also the western edge of Old Chinatown from around the 1880s through 1930s. It reached eastward across Alameda St. to cover most of the area that is now Union Station. It proceeded one more block past the Plaza, with the buildings on the east side of Olvera Street forming its western edge, until terminating at Alameda Street. [149]

          Eastern edge of Plaza Edit

          Since the early 1950s, Los Angeles Street has formed the eastern edge of the Plaza, but the buildings lining its eastern edge, including the Lugo Adobe, were removed. [150] [151] The site is now Father Serra Park.

          From the Plaza north to Alameda Edit

          When it was extended past the Plaza in 1888, [148] Los Angeles Street terminated one short block north of the Plaza at Alameda Street. Now, Los Angeles Street turns east at the north side of the Plaza to terminate at Alameda Street at a right angle, directly across from the Union Station complex. What was the short block of Los Angeles Street north of the Plaza is now part of Placita Dolores, a small open plaza which surrounds a statue of Mexican charro entertainer Antonio Aguilar on horseback. [152]

          Calle de los Negros Edit

          Until the late 19th century, Los Angeles Street did not form the east side of the Plaza it ran south only from Broad Place at the intersection of Arcadia Street. Here, the Coronel Adobe blocked the path north one block to the Plaza, but just slightly to the right (east) of the path of Los Angeles Street was Calle de los Negros (Spanish-language name marked on post-1847 maps as Negro Alley or Nigger Alley), a narrow, one-block north–south street likely named after darker-skinned Mexican afromestizo and/or mulatto residents during the Spanish colonial era. [153] [154] . At the north end of Calle de los Negros stood the Del Valle adobe (also known as the Matthias or Matteo Sabichi house), [155] [156] at the southern edge of which one could turn left and enter the plaza at its southeast corner. Calle de los Negros was famous for its saloons and violence in the early days of the town, and by the 1880s was considered part of Chinatown, lined with Chinese and Chinese American residences, businesses and gambling dens. [157] [158]

          The neglected dirt alley was already associated with vice by the early 1850s, when a bordello and its owner both known as La Prietita (the dark-skinned lady) were active here. Its other businesses included malodorous livery stables, a pawn shop, a saloon, a theater and a connected restaurant. Historian James Miller Guinn wrote in 1896, "in the flush days of gold mining, from 1850 to 1856, it was the wickedest street on earth. In length it did not exceed 500 feet, but in wickedness, it was unlimited. On either side it was lined with saloons, gambling hells, dance houses and disreputable dives. It was a cosmopolitan street. Representatives of different races and many nations frequented it. Here the ignoble red man, crazed with aguardiente, fought his battles, the swarthy Sonorian plied his stealthy dagger, and the click of the revolver mingled with the clink of gold at the gaming table when some chivalric American felt that his word of “honah” had been impugned." [153]

          By 1871, the alley was notorious as a "racially, spatially, and morally disorderly place", according to historian César López. It was here that a growing number of Chinese immigrant railroad laborers settled after the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. There, William Estrada notes, the "Chinese of Los Angeles came to fill an important sector of the economy as entrepreneurs. Some became proprietors and employees of small hand laundries and restaurants some were farmers and wholesale produce peddlers others ran gambling establishments and some occupied other areas left vacant by the absence of workers in the gold rush migration to California." The Chinese population increased from 14 in 1860 to almost 200 by 1870. Guinn stated that the alley stayed "wicked" through and after its transition to the city's Old Chinatown. [153]

          Calle de los Negros was reconfigured in 1888 when Los Angeles Street was extended north, with a small, shallow row of houses remaining between the new section of Los Angeles street's eastern edge and the western edge of the new, shortened alley. [148] [159] The site of Calle de los Negros is now the Pueblo parking lot and a cloverleaf-style entrance to the US 101 freeway.

          Coronel Adobe Edit

          The Coronel Adobe was built in 1840 by Ygnacio Coronel as a family home. It stood at the northwest corner of Arcadia Street and Calle de los Negros Los Angeles Street terminated at its southern end. The area gradually became an area for gambling and saloons, and upper-class families left to live elsewhere. Around 1849, they sold the house to a "sporting fraternity", which operated a popular 24-hour gambling establishment with games including monte, faro, and poker up to $200,000 in gold could be seen on the tables at a time. Arguments ensued and murders were frequent. The building later became a dance hall where "lewd women" were employed, aimed at the Mexican-American population. After that, still in the 1850s, it became a grocery and dry goods store (Corbett & Barker), then a storage house for iron and hard lumber for Harris Newmark Co. It was then leased to a Chinese immigrant. In 1871, it was the site of the Chinese massacre of 1871. The Adobe was torn down in 1888 in order to extend Los Angeles Street north past the Plaza. [148]

          Garnier Building Edit

          At 419 N. Los Angeles Street, at the northwest corner of Arcadia, is the Garnier Building, built in 1890, part of the city's original Chinatown. The southern portion of the building was demolished in the 1950s to make way for the Hollywood Freeway. The Chinese American Museum is now located in the Garnier Building. It should not be confused with another Garnier Block/Building on Main St. a block away now commonly known as Plaza House.

          The hotel was opened in 1963 by Gene Autry as Gene Autry's Hotel Continental. [1] Leased to Hyatt Hotels Corporation in 1966, it was renamed the Continental Hyatt House. [2]

          In the late 1960s and 1970s the hotel's proximity to popular clubs such as the Whisky a Go Go made it the preferred Los Angeles accommodation for touring rock groups, notably English bands Led Zeppelin, The Who and the Rolling Stones. It was often referred to at the time as the Riot House, a play on the name Hyatt House. [2]

          In 1976 the hotel became the Hyatt on Sunset. In February 1997, the hotel was renamed the Hyatt West Hollywood. The hotel was renovated in 2008 and reopened on January 8, 2009 as the Andaz West Hollywood, the second Andaz hotel in the new brand by Hyatt Hotels and Resorts. The 14-story Andaz West Hollywood has 239 rooms, including 20 suites and a restaurant called RH. [3] The renovation was completed by New York-based architecture and interior design firm Janson Goldstein LLP and includes a hand-painted metal disk 11-foot sculpture by renowned New York-based artist Jacob Hashimoto. [4] The balconies made famous by stories of rock stars throwing televisions from them are now glass-enclosed sunrooms that overlook Sunset Boulevard.


          When the church moved to Glendora in 1985, it purchased land from Azusa Pacific University. It is still [ as of? ] a thriving congregation, with about 500 worshipers every Sunday. David Anderson is the current Senior Pastor, with David Schaller serving as Associate Pastor and David Newkirk serving as Next Generation Pastor. There are two services every Sunday at 9:00 and 10:45 a.m. in the Worship Center, which is located just South of the gym. A variety of Sunday School classes are available, including ones for adults, and ones for children and teenagers. HUB (Home Unity Bible) groups meet weekly in local church families homes. This small group ministry is centered on fellowship and discussion of the pastor's sermon from Sunday.

          • Senior Pastor: David Anderson
          • Associate Pastor: David Schaller
          • Next Generation Pastor: David Newkirk
          • Worship Pastor: Steve Sandy
          • Children's Pastor: Jessica Lee
          1. ^"R. A. Torrey Biographies - Christian Biography - Wholesome Words". . Retrieved 2018-11-17 .
          2. ^
          3. Edward, Martin, Roger (1975). The theology of R.A. Torrey (Thesis). Asbury Theological Seminary.
          4. ^ ab
          5. Dart, John (1985-06-24). "Church of the Open Door Closes Them : Downtown Congregation Marks Move to Suburbs After 70 Years". Los Angeles Times. ISSN0458-3035 . Retrieved 2018-11-17 .
          6. ^
          7. Jacobs, Lindy (2015). "The Ed Underwood Interview". . Retrieved 2018-11-17 .
          8. ^
          9. Staggers, Kermit (1986). Reuben A. Torrey: American Fundamentalist. Claremont Graduate School: Ph.D. diss. pp. 213–214.
          10. ^
          11. Atwood, Rudy (1970). The Rudy Atwood Story. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Revell. pp. 75 and 115. OCLC90745.
          12. ^
          13. Harris, Scott (1988-02-18). "Hard-to-Unload 'Jesus Saves' Church Changes Ownership Twice in One Day". Los Angeles Times. ISSN0458-3035 . Retrieved 2018-11-17 .
          14. ^
          15. Harris, Scott (1987-10-22). "Did Quake Doom 'Jesus Saves' Church? : Claims of Serious Structural Damage Denied by Preservationists". Los Angeles Times. ISSN0458-3035 . Retrieved 2018-11-17 .
          16. ^
          17. "Ace Hotel Downtown Los Angeles: The Story of an L.A. Icon". Discover Los Angeles . Retrieved 2018-11-17 .

          This article about a church or other Christian place of worship in California is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

          This article about a building or structure in Los Angeles is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

          Fifty-eight years ago today, the Four Level interchange first opened to traffic. This iconic concrete ribbon that binds the 101 and 110 freeways is an almost inescapable feature of many Southern Californians’ commute. Admired by some and feared by others, the Four Level was—like many other highway innovations in Los Angeles—the first of its kind and destined to be copied elsewhere.

          The Four Level interchange as seen from above in 1959. Courtesy of the California Historical Society Collection, USC Libraries.

          The Four Level, also known as the Stack, gets its name from its multi-tiered structure that separates traffic heading in each direction into dedicated lanes. On the bottom level are curved ramps for those changing from the 110 freeway to the 101. One level above is the main trunk of the 110 freeway, named the Arroyo Seco Parkway north of the interchange and the Harbor Freeway south of it. On the third level are the arcing flyover ramps carrying traffic from the 101 freeway to the 110. Finally, on the fourth and top level is the main trunk of the 101 freeway, named the Hollywood Freeway to the west and the Santa Ana Freeway to the east.

          This design, now the basis of freeway interchanges around the world, was a marked improvement over the previous model. Older cloverleaf interchanges were less expensive and kept a lower profile, but they also tended to slow traffic and were more dangerous. They required motorists both entering and exiting a freeway to merge into one lane. (The 405 freeway’s interchange with Wilshire Boulevard in Westwood is an example.) Stack interchanges, on the other hand, kept the eight directions of traffic separate until the final merge.

          The Four Level carrying traffic in all eight directions shortly after its 1953 opening. Courtesy of Caltrans

          A partially-opened Four Level Interchange in 1952. Courtesy of the Automobile Club of Southern California.

          Automobiles on the Hollywood Freeway crossing the top level of the interchange in 1953. Courtesy of Caltrans.

          Still, the Four Level manages to inspire dread in some motorists. Merging is not always easy transitioning from the southbound Hollywood (101) Freeway to the southbound Harbor (110) Freeway requires a tricky three-lane maneuver to avoid the exit-only lanes bound for downtown streets. The interchange is also confluence of freeway names and numbers that can be confusing even to locals. Frustrated by missing information on Caltrans’ lane guidance signs, artist Richard Ankrom once installed his own signage near the interchange as an act of “Guerilla Public Service.” Finally, some Angelenos may be aware that the interchange is the site of L.A.’s original town gallows.

          Plans for the interchange were first unveiled on April 22, 1944. Construction cost $5.5 million and required demolition of the neighborhood adjacent to Bunker Hill. Work finished by 1949, but the interchange then sat unused for years construction crews were still building the connecting Hollywood, Harbor, and Santa Ana freeways. The Four Level opened in successive stages, but it was not until September 22, 1953 that motorists could drive on all 32 of its lanes and over all 20 of its bridges.

          Following the Northridge earthquake, the Four Level was retrofitted in 1997. In 2006, Caltrans renamed it the Bill Keene Memorial Interchange after the late KNX-AM and KNXT-TV traffic and weather announcer.

          Demolition clearing for the Four Level interchange on February 16, 1948. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Department of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA.

          The Four Level nearing completion on July 18, 1949. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive, Department of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA.

          The Four Level in 1954, one year after its opening. Courtesy of the Dick Whittington Photography Collection, USC Libraries

          Many have admired the Four Level for its aesthetic qualities. In L.A. Freeway: An Appreciative Essay (1981), David Brodsly praised the “particularly elegant” interchange for its “simple lines.” And despite some Southern Californians’ fondness for the 10-405 and 105-110 interchanges, the Four Level holds the distinction of being the only interchange in the region to be certified as a civil engineering landmark by the Society of Civil Engineers.

          Contemporary fiction has also recognized the Four Level’s landmark status, often depicting it as an unconscious manifestation of the conscious terror the interchange inspires in some motorists. In Thomas Pynchon’s novel The Crying of Lot 49, one character has a “boozy, black-and-white dream of jumping off The Stack into rush-hour traffic.”

          Maria in Joan Didion’s Play It As It Lays likewise dreams of the iconic interchange. She “lay at night in the still of Beverly Hills and saw the great signs soar overhead at seventy miles an hour, Normandie ¼ Vermont ¾ Harbor Fwy 1. Again and again she returned to an intricate stretch just south of the interchange where successful passage form the Hollywood onto the Harbor required a diagonal move across four lanes of traffic. On the afternoon she finally did it without once braking or losing the beat on the radio she was exhilarated, and that night slept dreamlessly.”

          View from beneath the Four Level, circa 1950s. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce Collection, USC Libraries.